An example of feuilleton. History of feuilleton
The satirical feuilleton is a genre of figurative poetic fiction, characterized by a sharp, often sarcastic, caricature beginning, and necessarily topicality. Its appearance is considered to be the year 1800, when a special sheet was added to the Journal de Paris for the first time, in which stage and musical reviews were published.
Under this section even novels were produced that showed an example of feuilleton. The development of this genre in Russia is connected with the occupation of the fiction writers of Dobrolyubov, Belinsky and others. The political genre was considered the main genre of the late 19th century. Feuilleton was a burning style of the Soviet press.
Features of the genre
Feuilleton is intended to produce an artistic and expressive influence on a person. At first, he was topical and informal, it follows from this the prevalence of criticism and interpretation of the sharp message, the hilarious (caustic) tendency in its presentation, "the second plan",increasing the image of a socially important event, and, of course, the author’s skillful possession of all the techniques of syllable and speech, expressed in an unusual style of an example of feuilleton.
The most important conditions of the analysis are its sharpness, determination of characters and phenomena. For the writer is characteristic: the sincerity of the formulation of his view of the object, building with the use of means of accentuation, exaggeration, abstraction and standardization of the original facts.
All the main functions of speech are performed in feuilleton:
- notification (reports on situations, life situations, on the basis of which the feuilleton story is based);
- aesthetic (expresses reality from an artistic point of view and tries to show a poetic and expressive action through speech);
- figurative (the writer formulates his view on what is happening);
One of the components of the genre is the image of the satirist. It may be identical to the image of the narrator or fundamentally different. However, it is often as if the author rises above the described, seeing the events much more extensive and more perfect than even the reader.
An example of feuilleton can be one or many circumstances, enclosing in exaggerated form the features characteristic of the actions of the class to which they relate. These are the fundamental points of the classification of satire.
This edition was the central caricature Soviet magazine. Its circulation reached six and a half million copies. It exposed not only human defects, but also industrial imperfections, and even deficiencies in management.
The parody of the magazine all the time "shot" at the target. "Crocodile" was considered a topical publication throughout his life, and some of his "ridicule" are relevant in our time.
In the journal, the ideology of the West, strategy and diplomacy were finely exposed. And now her satire on a similar subject is extremely sharp and label.
However, the most significant caricatures were turned inside the Soviet Union. The work of satirist writers regarding atrocities in organizations was done quite well.
The magazine "Crocodile" ridiculed not only the turmoil in the workplace, but also revealed the negative qualities of people - alcoholism, negligence, laziness, kleptomania, spitiness.
The journalist's satirist very much noted the state of society and the authorities.
A well-known journal addressed his caricature both to the “separately considered object” and to the situation as a whole. What are his school satires, aptly reflecting the flaws of certain current students and modern education?
The themes of witty satyr and Zoshchenko satires converge. He boldly condemned bureaucracy, ignorance, insolence, the iniquity of power, negligence, everyday disorder, etc. All these problems reflect the theme of indifference to people, which defines Zoshchenko as a humanist.
He focuses attention on the polite attitude towards the person. Such an analysis of important topics through the prism of humanity singled out journalism from Zoshchenko from the works of other cartoonists, and made his reports in the press both visible and effective. However, his satire becomes calmer. What is the reason? Zoshchenko no longer uses the fantasy style, but the tinge of didactics, moral instruction in the conclusion of feuilleton, is increasing.
- The prose feuilleton acts as a single story about a specific negative event or about a “character” of the event; the problem is revealed on a sequential depiction of reality or on the contradiction of phenomena.Such a genre can be purposeful (a definite point of action and the names of the persons involved are indicated) and abstract (the writer shows the absurdity or absurdity of any circumstance).
- The journalistic feuilleton is often depicted in television as a sarcastic monologue - a writer's note, and acts as a kind of response to a certain phenomenon or circumstance.
The object of the image is situations and circumstances of reality that have a duality: social harm and satirical nature.
The task of the feuilletonist is the use of comedic to assess socially harmful realities (irony) and the harmless, mild ridicule of human vices and weaknesses (comic).
Image methods are a combination of factuality, imagery and sarcasticity.
The role and place of the author
The main thing in the feuilleton story is not the number of facts depicted and not even their external glare and showiness. The main thing is the nature of the analysis of phenomena, the ability of the feuilletonist writer to present a characteristic picture and typical properties of an event.
The most important task of the author is to look at the facts from the position of the comic (to be ridiculed), which is in this case.The difficulty is in mastering to expose this comical, to discover its sarcastic nature and to present it in a figurative form, through a system of caricature types born not only as a result of the writer's poetic endeavors, but also as a direct result of targeted journalistic study.
Means of typing satire:
Among them are the following:
- a detail contributing to the restoration of a clear picture of action; caricature, exaggerated, introduced into the general system of methods of satirical emphasis, conveys the writer's opinion about reproducible phenomena, gives rise to corresponding feelings in the audience;
- the speech of the characters, revealing the nature of satire in the setting; the characters “blink through,” and the conflict between personal frivolity and the imposing pretense in the words of the hero is revealed no less colorful than in actions; aptly selected reprise-part turns into a reprise-characteristic;
- the use of figurative figures from poetry or journalism, drama, cinema, introduction of excerpts of these works into feuilleton material, in order to find an associative connection when comparing and to achieve a comical result, to give the viewer a particular emotional reasoning;
- means of comic and irony, having in their basis a deliberate, purposeful destruction of the semantic, idiomatic and lexical norms of the language.
Feuilletons of Ilf and Petrov appeared for the first time in the pages of the comic magazine "Oddball".
The work of Bulgakov in the 20s is marked by the creation of sarcastic works of the genre.
The question of the subject originality of Bulgakov's feuilletons remains acute today. It is widely believed that the master often interpreted internal problems. They are exposed to the conflicts of the destruction of moral traditions, the housing crisis. However, the amazing diversity of data themes reflecting the realities of the 20s of the 20th century, which were subjected to absolute abstraction in the artistic messages of the author, has not yet been studied.
Articles satires, as one of the recognized newspaper styles of satire, were used by writers to resist the vestiges that obstructed social life.
An example of feuilleton: “If a person is unintelligent, then it is for a long time. If he is a fool, then it is forever, for a lifetime. There is nothing you can do ... ".