Dialectics in philosophy: the most important part
In a complex science called philosophythere are various methods of cognition and study, as well as a large number of theories. One of the most common is the theory of dialectics, or, according to a scientific definition, a theory about the development of all things in the world and a philosophical method based on it. With the help of dialectics, scientists can theoretically study various aspects of reality (matter, spirit, consciousness and cognition), as well as their development. Dialectics in philosophy shows the reflection of this process through its own (dialectical) laws, categories and principles - in contrast to metaphysics, which studies a particular subject at a particular moment in time and in a concrete state.
Experts note that the main problemThis theory can be formulated as follows: "What is development?". Dialectics responds - development is one of the most important features of matter and its common property. And, and this is very important, it means development not only mechanical (increase in size), but also intellectual, implying the transition of matter to the next stage of organization. Dialectics in philosophy also denotes development as a kind of movement, but at the same time clarifies - without this movement development is not possible. Dialectics acts in accordance with several laws, that is, certain objective, from the person and his will independent, repetitive connections between all essences of reality and within these entities. These laws are general, necessary and stable, covering all spheres of reality and revealing the basics of the interrelationships of movement and development in their deepest sphere. As for metaphysics, it does not in any way affect development (like its laws).
Dialectics in philosophy is guided in the firstturn the law of unity and struggle of opposites, the meaning of which is that in reality everything is a unity of opposing principles, which are in constant struggle. The most striking example of the action of the dialectic law is day and night, youth and old age, winter and summer, and it means not only the unity and struggle of these beginnings, but also their constant internal movement and development. The second law of dialectics is the transition to qualitative changes in quantitative changes. First of all, it should be noted that the concept of quality means the existence of a stable system of certain bonds and characteristics of the object, while the quantity is certain parameters of the object, for example, its size and weight, size and volume. Unlike metaphysics, dialectic in philosophy asserts that in reality there is the possibility of changing quality in quantitative changes. An example of the effect of this law is the heating of water, when the increase in quantitative parameters (temperature) gradually leads to a change in the qualitative parameter of the water (it will become hot). As for the law of negation of negation, its essence consists in a simple definition: everything new that comes to the place of the old negates this old, but gradually itself becomes the object of negating an even newer one. Examples of the operation of this law - the change of generations, the daily process of the death of cells of the body and the formation of new ones.
Some scholars believe that dialectic isan important part, on which the structure and functions of philosophy are based. Its main principles are the principles of universal communication, system and causality, and the principle of historicism. From the point of view of both dialectics and philosophy, the universal connection is the integrity of the surrounding world, its internal unity and interconnectedness. In addition, it is necessarily interdependence of all components of the surrounding world and the reality, that is, of all objects, phenomena and processes. If we talk about causality, then this point, for the whole philosophy, and exclusively for dialectics, means the existence of links, single, passing one into another, such that one generates another and supplements it. It can be noted that dialectics and metaphysics in philosophy are two halves of one large process of investigation.