Education concepts. Logical methods of education concepts
The process of exploring the world, identifying patterns and the influence of various conditions on a person’s vital activity is impossible without fixing and accumulating certain information. One of the forms of a kind of consolidation of such knowledge can be called the emergence of new concepts. This information identifies a particular object or phenomenon. In this case, the formation of concepts occurs in different ways. These are logical techniques that allow characterizing the object being defined with varying degrees of confidence.
Content and scope of the concept
Before you begin to review the techniques by which new concepts are formed, you should decide on the subject of the study itself. What is meant by the concept? It is based on information, which is a combination of the characteristics of the object. Obviously, there are signs that will be conditional and will not be able to give information about the object as a unique object.
To fix this condition, we use the characteristic volume of the concept.For example, if we are talking about the signs of a tree, the content of the concept in this case will be expressed as a description of its crown, trunk, leaves, fruits, root system, etc. In turn, the volume will allow to reflect the entire set of possible trees that fall under this set of classifying features. Moreover, the volume can characterize both infinite and countable set.
A significant problem in determining the content and volume is that the types and forms of existence of many objects do not have strict boundaries. They may give in to perception and sensation, or they may be hidden. And, again, the same object, depending on the circumstances (as a rule, changing) can take the form of a hidden, and a kind of sentient existence. This necessitates the consideration of each concept both individually and in conjunction with the surrounding world. Nevertheless, the relation of categories within the concept will fit into logical laws. To determine the relationship between volume and content, for example, the principle of inverse relationship is applied. From it follows that the breadth of the volume will inevitably indicate the narrowness of the content.Conversely, the larger the set of features, that is, the richer the content, the smaller the volume of the subject. As the list of features and characteristics is added, it will be logical to narrow down the set of objects that can be included in the studied group.
Intentionality of concepts
For an abstract consideration of the concept as such without a specific reference to its content, the term intentionality is used. In essence, it will indicate content as a system of characteristics, by means of which it is possible to isolate objects from the total mass. This distinction allows for a more detailed approach to understanding the content, its structure and functions.
In a broad sense, the content includes the meaning of the concept, expressed as a combination of features of the studied subject. There are also studies in which the content is associated with all the information that was obtained in the study of the object. Therefore, it can be said that conceptual thinking is not only the handling of the signs and characteristics of the subject, but also the application of the full range of information relating to the object.Another thing is that the identification of ordinary information with classifying signs may affect the quality of the definition.
So, content from the point of view of intentionality will mean some information regarding objects, processes, phenomena and patterns that are included in this concept. In the future, the accumulated information can be used to form a new concept. Not necessarily basic information should be directly associated with the subject matter. It can also be part of information that separately allows us to determine the characteristics and characteristics of the target object of study. Another interesting component is the connotation of a concept. What is connotation in terms of understanding the object? In a sense, this is a form of distortion. Through it information about objects can be transmitted. A striking example of connotation is the translation from one language to another. Or the communication of two people in a language that for both of them is not native. At the basic level, such interlocutors can use quite correctly verbal turns, however a wide range of variations of pronunciation, shades of accents, colors of meanings can reduce the degree of mutual understanding.That is, the factor of content transmission is also important in the form in which its content was initially viewed as signs of an object.
Extensionality of concepts
If intentionality reflects the essence of the content, then extensionality will be responsible for its relation to the surrounding objects. First of all, it must be emphasized that the attitude will be determined by the presence of common signs.
That is, the fact that the object under study may have characteristics that are characteristic of other objects. Their number and content may be different, but it’s not a complete repetition. On the other hand, for extensionality, the mere reflection of the object is not enough. For example, there cannot be an identical relationship between a real object and an object as a product of the thinking process in the imagination, even if it repeats the same signs completely. Therefore, for a more precise definition of extensionality, we can introduce the concept of an abstract object.
What is the definition of abstraction in this context? It can be expressed through the same mental structure, which can be characterized by signs of the target content.By the way, the volume in this case will certainly make an infinite number of abstract objects with the same set of properties, which will be another contradiction between the concepts of the real and the abstract. Even under the condition that all the signs are identical, in the first case the volume can be countable, and in the second - unlimited.
Attitude can be expressed in relation to categories of objects. In this regard, there may also be identity errors associated with the volume, but the link between objects as real objects of comparison will become more significant. In the process of research, the correctness of handling the categories must be maintained. This is especially the case when the formation of concepts occurs in the process of identifying parts of objects and parts of volumes. If there is no logical violation in the identification of individual properties, then the difference in volumes as means of expressing sets of objects in separate real objects and categories is quite significant.
Functions of the concept
The processes of formation of new concepts have their own logic, supported by the need for knowledge and ideas about the world.Moreover, the discovery of new information does not necessarily have to occur in isolation from the existing fixed information. Often, the fixation of concepts occurs as a result of an in-depth study of the existing database of the characteristics and characteristics of objects, their relationships, etc. To understand the relationship between concepts, it is important to highlight their functions in the context of research and consolidate new definitions.
First of all, it is a cognitive function, which is based on the direct application of the concept. The accumulated information is systematized, expanded and refined, after which whole layers of scientific knowledge are formed. Actually, the formation of concepts and forms a science, which, in turn, works on technological development, improvement of production processes, etc. The next function is communicative. Concepts are used as the content of communication tools. People exchange information, which itself is a repository of concepts. Without communication, the continuity of the generations that transmit the knowledge already existing at this point would not be possible.Now you can refer to specific techniques through which the formation of new concepts.
The analysis as a means of forming concepts means the process of the mental separation of objects into separate parts, as well as the selection of their distinctive features. Moreover, the range of possible objects for analysis is almost limitless. The thought itself can act in this capacity - accordingly, in this case, the formation of concepts about abstract objects will occur. An important feature of the analysis is certainty, thanks to which it can be compared with mathematical actions. The closest thing in this respect will be the division operation. After the separation of objects into parts and the identification of the most pronounced signs, the process of studying the elements and comparing with each other follows. At this stage, there is a transition to another method - comparison.
An example of an analysis technique is the study of a food product and a car. They will have common properties - for example, the red color will combine the apple and the car body. But just in the process of separating these objects into separate components (for example, external, internal, functional), obvious differences will be found,on the basis of which it is possible to form content with sets of classifying signs. As a rule, logical methods of the formation of concepts based on analytical processes involve the use of inference and interpretation.
In the process of comparison, differences and similarities of objects are established for a given set of features. A necessary condition for such a comparison is the possibility and permissibility of comparing two objects on the basis of one content. In other words, the comparison criteria should be applicable to both objects. At the first stage, when using this technique, conceptual thinking nevertheless highlights a common one, which will allow a more detailed approach to differences. As mentioned above, the comparison can be a continuation of analytical thinking in the context of the study of a single object. But the reverse situation is also possible, when the results of the comparison can be used as confirmation of the conclusions derived from the analysis.
At the same time, the comparison is the basis for the value judgment, on which the content with the feature set of the object will be based.This technique can be considered as a process of subjective measurement, identification and categorization of concepts. What is the comparison in relation to the content formation process? First of all, it is a direct comparison of objects according to certain criteria. But even more important is the support of the objects themselves, which may just be abstract or artificial. Comparison is effective for the reason that allows you to build on a huge array of possibilities for identifying the characteristics of an object with prototypes, patterns, abstract models, etc.
Another form of mental selection of one object from the set or category of sets. Abstraction is one of the basic processes of mental activity, which is based on sign mediation. It is worth emphasizing that this technique makes it possible, by transferring abstraction into the field of abstraction, to consider the features themselves as objects. As a result, a theoretical generalization occurs in some way, which expresses the key regularities of the studied subjects, as well as phenomena.Abstract information about the subject can be represented as an array of holistic entities that form the content of the concept. The basis for this array can be a complex of the same conclusions, laws, judgments, and other concepts that were derived precisely in the course of abstract selection.
Obvious are the problems that arise when using abstraction as a way to create new concepts. First, dialectical logic opposes abstraction to concrete objects. That is, there is a danger in which the study will ignore a wide range of features and properties of the object. Secondly, the abstracted process of the formation of a concept does not make it possible to investigate an object in the context of a complex interaction with factors that take place in a real situation.
If the previous methods of forming concepts were focused on creating a base of distinctive features through separation, then the synthesis also uses connection methods. In general, concepts, and component parts of objects, individual signs and characteristics can be combined.It is important to note that such a connection also occurs according to certain laws, which, by synthesis, create conditions for obtaining information about the object under study. That is, after combining, a certain connection will be established between concepts or parts of objects, which will give new information about them. What is the definition of synthesis in relation to forms of concepts that imply separation? In a practical study, this technique can be represented as an assembly of a target object, observing the sequence of arrangement of the components. Sometimes not just new concepts are formed by synthesis, but the definitions of existing objects are refined, as it allows them to be investigated and corrected in more detail. Therefore, it would be wrong to consider the synthesis purely as a stand-alone tool of the cognitive process. Rather, it is an additional or auxiliary tool aimed at improving the efficiency and accuracy of analytical research.
The process of generalization as the mental formation of concepts is in some sense similar to synthesis.He also uses as a tool not all the means of separation, but increase, expansion and extrapolation, that is, transfer. The material for the operation in this case are the distinctive features, signs, properties, as well as parts of the subjects being studied. Therefore, the generalization of the essential properties in a single concept should be considered not just as a way to highlight the general, but to find distinctive-specific qualities for the studied sets.
At the same time, the generalization is characterized by the simplification of the subject, since in this process it is inevitable that certain details and particulars will be lowered. In this model, the inverse relationship law is in effect, when the content can determine the magnitude of the concept. The exclusion of details and small nuances allows you to expand the studied array of objects. Another question is also interesting: how to make up the concept of a subject by means of generalization, if we are talking about an array of objects with unknown features? Moreover, if the feature set is not imposed and is not entered from the outside. In this case, the mechanism of concept formation will be repelled by signs of similarity.The system of knowledge should increase the content due to the properties characteristic of the subject matter. As a result, by performing several cycles of matching, the array will be narrowed down, retaining only generalized objects corresponding to the entered list of identical properties.
The main characteristic of all the above techniques in terms of practical application may be the need for their combined use. Not always different means of defining objects are used on an integrated basis, but this approach allows us to significantly increase the accuracy of concept formation.
Examples of this approach are used, in particular, in the inventory when you need to systematize the tool. Or, in forestry accounting, when management organizations conduct a mass inspection of trees and shrubs, fixing their distinctive features. In such cases, based on the prepared lists with the selection criteria, the technique of synthesis, synthesis and comparison is used. Some areas cover the techniques of analytical research and abstract definitions of concepts.Such tools are effective when it comes to hidden objects or signs that are inaccessible to real feeling. The same abstraction is used in the transition from the sensual to the rational, but in the context of a purely thinking process - accordingly, using this technique, for example, when inventorying real objects is simply inappropriate.