How to care for an apple tree in spring, summer and autumn? Planting, pruning and caring for apple trees
Apple tree - one of the most common in Europe. It is adapted to the particularities of the climate of the CIS countries, but this does not mean at all that it should be completely left to itself and does not require care. This tree should be monitored in the same way as the rest. And it is about how to care for the apple, we will talk in this article.
Many people think that this process is absolutely simple, but here you need to know some nuances. And not every summer resident knows how to care for apple trees correctly. If you perform all the necessary actions, there is really nothing difficult in growing this tree.
Landing: Stages and Rules to Follow
Planting and caring for apple trees is not a very time consuming process. But you need to strictly follow some recommendations so that the plants feel comfortable, so that they fully develop. You can bring an apple tree on your site using ready saplings.If you plan to plant a whole apple orchard, then while the trees are still young and do not have a lush crown, the gaps between them can be used for vegetables, and later - for strawberries, since it does not require a lot of sunlight.
To go to the question of how to care for an apple tree, you first need to know how to plant it properly. It is necessary to perform this procedure in early spring - immediately after the snow melts.It must be ensured that the upper layer of the soil is not frozen, - otherwise, it is still possible to delay the landing. Usually the best time to plant apple seedlings is April or early May.
So, go to the process of landing. First of all, we mark with pegs the places where we will do it. Between plants it is desirable to leave at least four meters of free distance so that each of them can fully develop. If the apple variety you plant has a wide crown, this distance should be five meters.
After marking you need to dig a hole under each seedling. Its depth should be 0.6 m, width and length - 0.6-0.7 m.The clay or sand part of the soil should be folded in one direction, and humus - separately, in the other. If the soil on your site is infertile, then you need to enrich it with plant-friendly substances by pouring two buckets of humus into each hole, half a kilo of phosphate and about 60 grams of potash fertilizers. All these substances must be pre-mixed with the top layer of excavated earth. Next, take out the seedlings from the storage and inspect them for dried or damaged roots. If any are found, delete them. Covering fertilized soil at the bottom of the fossa, on top of it we make a layer of ordinary soil that is not saturated with fertilizer. This is to ensure that the roots of the plant are not in direct contact with the fertilizer, as this can be harmful for them. Next you need to install a seedling on top of the ground in the pit so that the root neck is exactly at the level of the ground surface. If it turns out to be much lower, the plants will grow much slower and worse; if it is higher than necessary, the roots will begin to dry out. Next we fall asleep the rest of the earth and compact it for better fixation of the plant.
What to do next?
Care for young apple trees that have just been planted in the ground should be especially careful. It is on how the host monitors the plants in a given period that their further development depends. If in the first years, caring for an apple tree in the spring, summer and autumn is negligent, then it will simply wither without even beginning to bear fruit.
Caring for an old apple tree is not so difficult. The first thing that must be done is to irrigate. For it you need to prepare special rims on the diameter of the pits in which the plants were planted. They should be about 0.15 m wide.This is necessary to ensure that the moisture gets exactly to its intended purpose, that is, to the roots of the plant, and does not spread over the rest of the area. For each young apple tree for one watering should take two or three buckets of water. After it is absorbed into the soil, it is advisable to sprinkle the hole in which the tree was planted, dry soil or humus. This is necessary so that the moisture does not evaporate any longer. Watering the plants is best every two to three weeks, but with frequent rainfall it can be done less often.
One of the main stages of care
This is pruning an apple tree. It is necessary for all plants, but especially young.Apple pruning is carried out immediately after its landing in the ground. If the conditions for the plant to stick, are very favorable, which includes a sufficiently developed root system, a high level of soil moisture, early planting, etc., then pruning is done by only a third of the trunk. If the escape has already branched, then each branch should be shortened. If the conditions are not very favorable, for example, the weather is too hot and dry, late landing in the ground, then trimming should be done thoroughly - up to half of the entire escape.
An adult apple tree also needs to be cut - this is necessary for better growth and the formation of a beautiful crown. In this case, first of all, it is necessary to get rid of the hanging parts of the lower branches. Then the uppermost branches should be shortened, except for those that are directed to the sides. Thus, we reduce the height of the tree and form a more lush and free crown, which is necessary so that all the branches get enough light.
When and how best to fertilize?
Continuing the conversation about how to care for apples, we turn to a very important topic - fertilizers. They are of two types - mineral and organic.The first are also divided into two main subtypes - potash and phosphate. Caring for an apple tree implies the use of both types of fertilizer. If you, following the instructions, have enriched the soil with nutrients when planting, then the next few years you do not need to do this anymore. However, if for some reason you have not fulfilled this condition, then fertilizer can be applied in the first year of plant development. Soil enrichment with minerals and other useful chemical compounds is one of the stages, which includes caring for apple trees in the fall, since it is best to do this at this time of the year. One square meter of soil will need such a quantity of the following ingredients:
- 0.02 kg of ammonium nitrate;
- as many potassium salts;
- 2-3 kg of humus;
- 0.05-0.06 kg of phosphate fertilizers.
It is necessary to close fertilizer into the soil to a depth of about 0.01 m around the trunk and about 0.02 m in those places where the apple root system does not lie. This procedure is carried out not every year, but every two or three.
Autumn digging between rows
This is one of the most important steps in caring for an apple tree. This procedure should be carried out every year.During digging, organic and phosphate-potassium fertilizers should be applied to the soil to compensate for the lack of nutrients in the autumn.
Do it before the onset of frost. For this procedure, use compost, humus and peat. It is brought into the ground around the trunk of a tree.
Watering adults apple
We have already considered how to carry out this procedure in the case of saplings, now we will tell about trees that are more than two years old. Watering - the main component. This kind of care for an apple tree is especially important in the summer, since this particular season of the year is the most arid and hot, which is not particularly favorable for plants (and not only for apple trees).
A tree at the age of two or three years should be watered often, but in small portions. The first time they do it, as a rule, in early June. Water needs to be spent, focusing on the number 4 buckets per 1 square meter of soil. The area to be moistened is calculated by looking at the crown, i.e., all the earth under it must be watered. The procedure should be repeated every fifteen to twenty days. For more effective moistening of the plant's root system, it is advisable to loosen the ground around the trunk before watering.
Apple trees, which are more than three years old, are not so often watered, as this can lead to a reduction in yield. It is enough to water it once a month, but in large portions. In this case, water needs to be spent around 40-42 buckets per tree.
Colonid Apple Care
Due to the nature of such trees, they can be planted at a distance of 0.3-0.4 m from each other. Between the rows should be left from 1 m. All stages of care for such an apple tree are different from those that can be used in the case of an ordinary one. This is due to the anatomical features of this type of trees, which must be taken into account when growing them in order to achieve good results and an intensive harvest.
This is a special type of care, it is characteristic for columnar apple trees. It lies in the fact that around trees they sow cereal or various kinds of spices (lemon balm, dill, which, by the way, can also protect against pests), and then periodically carefully mow them. Such a procedure is necessary for plants because their root system is very close to the surface. It is not pivotal, that is, it has no main root extending deep into the soil. Because of this, the roots can easily suffer from external influences on the soil above them.And as a result of this, this possibility is much reduced. In addition, for the same purpose can be used and mulching.
It has its own characteristics and differences from a similar procedure in the case of ordinary varieties. Trimming is carried out only on the side branches, which are already available in very small quantities. It is impossible to break the main trunk, since this can lead to the growth of a larger number of lateral branches - and the columnar apple will no longer resemble one. To carry out this operation should be as follows. The side branch is cut so that three to four buds are left. In this case, it will give about three shoots. But in the first year it is cut only on two buds. Then, in the second year of the plant’s life, the lateral shoot that is farther from the trunk should also be shortened into two buds. The first one, which you did not touch, will begin to bear fruit this year. The next spring, it should be removed completely. And the rest of the branches, which have not yet given fruit, also cut into two buds.
Protection of apple trees from rodents
For this plant whiten. It is necessary to carry out this procedure in the case of young trees (four to five years), the bark of which has not yet become hardened. Recently planted apple trees are whitened with a solution of chalk.Older trees can be whitened with lime mortar if necessary. It should be prepared as follows: add six kilograms of clay and twenty liters of water to six kilograms of freshly slaked lime. In addition, two hundred grams of wood glue, preheated, and a kilogram of blue vitriol can be added to the solution.
Pests and diseases of apple trees
The most important step in the care of any plant is its treatment, as well as the prevention of possible diseases. The most common pests are the eastern fruit moth, the green apple aphid, the hawthorn. The first one looks like a caterpillar of brown-red color, about 1.3 cm in size. Its butterfly has a wingspan of 1.5 cm. The front wings are brown with gray, and the back wings are monochromatic gray. The apple aphid is a small insect about three millimeters in size.
Hawthorn caterpillars have a length of approximately five centimeters and are dark in color with orange and black longitudinal stripes. Their butterflies are also quite large. Their wingspan is about seven centimeters. Veins on light wings are clearly visible. All these insects can be combated with various insecticides.Spraying spend and for prevention.
What if the apple tree stooped?
In the case when under the action of strong winds the apple tree is bent in any direction, many people think that it is already impossible to correct it. But this is not true. What to do to make the tree smooth again? It is necessary to drive a stake into the ground from the side opposite to the one into which the apple tree has arched, to carefully pull a tree to it and tie it. You can also put on the side in which the apple tree arched, backwater. Of course, in one day the tree will not become smooth, for this you need at least three years, after which it will be possible to remove the support.