Malignant neoplasms: types, differences and features
C00-C97 encoded in ICD-10 malignant neoplasms is a group of serious diseases that are now more often than many others causing disability and death among the inhabitants of our planet. The increase in the incidence of such diseases is recorded in the predominant number of countries in the world. In developed countries, cancer competes with diseases of the heart and blood vessels, deaths due to injuries, firmly ranking second or third in the number of causes of death. In developing countries, infectious diseases often lead to the death of the patient, nevertheless, tumors firmly occupy the fourth position in the rating.
Ciphers and categories
In the ICD, malignant neoplasms are recorded under the code group C00-C97. In some cases, additional U85 symbols are used if the case is characterized by the resistance of atypical cells to classical antitumor therapy.The same code (U85) encrypts malignant neoplasms in ICD, the elements of which have refractive properties and immunity of medications.
Statistics say that approximately seven million people appear on the planet in a year. The number of deaths in 12 months is estimated at an average of five million victims.
Specializes in the study of the pathologies of this circle, the branch of oncology medicine. Doctors identify the causes of cancer, develop methods and methods for its treatment and prevention. Clinical manifestations, typical symptoms, including early stages are investigated, new approaches to the accurate diagnosis of the patient's condition are being developed. It is known for sure: the best prognosis for any form of neoplasm is in a patient who has applied to the clinic on time and has received qualified help. Early and extremely correct diagnosis is the key to choosing an adequate treatment, and therefore, the survival rate of the patient.
Terms and their essence
Neoplasms are also called tumors, blastomas. In medicine, this term refers to some excess tissue formation, the spread of which does not correspond to the growth of cells and body tissues.Pathological processes are terminated, if we exclude the reasons that provoked them. Allocate malignant neoplasms, benign. The first option is prone to infiltration, that is, it is able to penetrate into the tissues in the vicinity of the pathological zone, gradually disrupting their structure and functionality. The second type only grows on its own, thereby squeezing the structures located nearby.
For malignant pathological processes, a classification system has been developed. When a disease is detected, it is necessary to immediately diagnose exactly what kind of tissue gave rise to the process. Possible epithelial cancer, proliferation of connective tissue. Malignant neoplasms localized in the liquids of the circulatory and lymphatic system are widely distributed both in the world and in Russia. The start can be from the cells of the immune complex, the CNS or PNS. Cases of multiple nature are especially complicated when the processes are initiated by cells of different tissues.
Where did the trouble come from?
Scientists have long been trying to identify the causes of malignant tumors in the lungs, liver and kidneys, musculoskeletal and nervous, lymphatic and circulatory systems, as well as other areas of localization.At present, it has already been possible to formulate a number of factors that are highly likely to provoke pathology, but it is also known that there are a lot of white spots - the information has yet to be clarified. It has been established that in most cases cancer processes are formed under the influence of a complex of factors. Scientists recognize that while the unknown in the area of the causes of such pathologies more than the established reliably and accurately. It is accepted to allocate internal, external primary sources.
It is known that the incidence of malignant neoplasms is higher among persons forced by habitat, working activities to interact with chemical aggressive compounds. There are three classes of carcinogens. There are reliable information regarding some compounds: they are very likely to initiate the abnormal proliferation of abnormal cells. Such metals of increased danger include some metals, including cadmium and chromium, petroleum products, benzene, dioxins, arsenic.
Presumably, lead, cobalt,formaldehyde and some individual members of the class of products of oil refining. This group of substances is highlighted in the category of potential carcinogens. There are also chemical compounds for which it was not possible to prove the effect on the likelihood of the appearance of malignant neoplasms, nevertheless certain groups of people (including scientists) hold an opinion on the possibility of this quality.
Carcinogenic factors: sources
More often, malignant neoplasms of the prostate gland, mammary or thyroid, stomach, intestines and bones, as well as other types and types, reveal if a person is forced to live and work in a contaminated space. Carcinogens can enter the body with inhaled air and drinking water, food, as well as through the soil, with dust. The main sources of carcinogens in the surrounding area are industrial facilities, plants engaged in metallurgy, pulp, paper, textile, chemical industry, oil refining facilities. An important source of pollution is transportation.
Higher risk of malignant neoplasm of the prostate, mammary, thyroid,any other organ, if a person is exposed to ionizing radiation, adversely affecting the gene level. As a rule, such neoplasms do not differ from those formed under other aggressive factors. In rare cases, it is possible to identify precisely: the disease is explained precisely by irradiation, this phenomenon has started the proliferation of atypical cells and the impotence of the body against them.
Dangers: Do we know about everyone?
It is known that there are higher risks of the formation of a malignant neoplasm in the stomach, intestinal tract, lungs and other tissues and organs, if a person is often forced to stay in areas exposed to magnetic radiation (not radioactive). Such high-risk areas - power lines, television stations, radio points, as well as localization of high-power radar devices. Their radiation is several times more substantial than the normal background.
At the moment, there is no exact link between the likelihood of developing cancer and such exposure, but suggest that detailed studies on this topic will help to achieve a clear answer. From medical statistics, it follows that among children, cases of pathological neoplastic processes have recently become more frequent if babies have been exposed to a strong electromagnetic field.An indisputable fact is the aggressive influence of solar radiation, which can provoke a malignant process.
Malignant neoplasms of the mammary glands, gastrointestinal, nervous and musculoskeletal systems, as well as other areas of localization may develop under the influence of aggressive viruses. Currently, among all the internal causes of this, the first place in terms of prevalence, and therefore danger, belongs Viruses provoking forms of hepatitis B, C can be the cause of hepatic tumors, and HPV is known to provoke malignant processes in the uterine neck. Schistosomiasis in some cases causes a tumor of the bladder, and in the bile ducts such a process can initiate opisthorchiasis.
A possible cause of oncology is an imbalance of hormonal levels. Most often, pathological processes begin in women, localized in the mammary gland.
Heredity plays its role. Higher risk of cancer if among close relatives were persons suffering from such pathologies. In this case, it is not the tumor process that is genetically transmitted, but a predisposition to pathological cell proliferation.
Lifestyles and dangers
Malignant neoplasms are possible on the background of bad habits.The most significant role of smoking. Up to 85% of tumor processes in the respiratory system are explained precisely by this factor, and lung cancer is the most common cancer on the planet. Up to 85% of cases of malignant processes in the larynx, 80% in the lip, 75% in the esophagus and 40% in the bladder are associated with the use of tobacco products.
It is proved that the start of the process can give alcohol abuse. Under the influence of ethanol, the probability of pathological proliferation in the oral cavity, esophagus and pharynx increases. Alcoholics are damaged by hepatic, intestinal, pulmonary cancer. Higher risk of malignant processes in the larynx and mammary gland. Strong drinks and low alcohol drinks are equally dangerous.
Proven relationship between the probability of the development of malignant neoplasms and diet, diet. The most common pathology localization is the gastrointestinal tract. An oversupply of animal fats, nitrates and salt in food can provoke processes. Above the danger to those who eat canned, smoked and fast food. Lack of vitamins, lack of fiber in the food produced and excessive energy value of products are negative factors that increase the risks.The role of saturated fats in the formation of malignant processes in the respiratory system, intestines, prostate, and mammary gland has been established.
Attention to health
Especially careful should be persons with a weakened immune system. When taking depressing the immune system drugs several times increases the risk of cancer processes in the liver, lung, lymphatic and reproductive system.
How to notice?
Symptomatology depends on the stage of the malignant neoplasm. It is possible to suspect a pathology if for a long time the treatment of a certain disease does not produce an effect. For example, if it is impossible to defeat a cough or an ulcer in the stomach, inflammation of the pharynx, it is likely that the root cause is cancer. In addition, a complex of so-called minor signs is peculiar to an oncological patient: a person gets tired quickly, working capacity decreases, the patient is apathetic, lethargic, feels discomfort, loses weight. From time to time, disturbances of an incomprehensible nature, dysfunction of a certain organ or system may be disturbing.
One of the symptoms is called "plus-cloth." You can identify it during palpation, visual inspection: a certain part of the body is deformed, asymmetric.The study helps to assess the volume, mobility, structure, position of the formation of relatively nearby tissues, the pain of the area. The lymphatic system deserves special attention. It is important to conduct a comprehensive survey, if the nodes are sore, enlarged, dense to the touch, welded to tissues nearby, and mobility is limited.
Attention to manifestations
In malignant processes in the body, paraneoplastic symptoms appear, that is, clinical manifestations that are distant from the initial localization area. Their cause is hormonal disorders, failure of biochemistry, immunity due to cancer. There are cases of the emergence of such a complex of symptoms before signs of the underlying disease. The most unpredictable localization is possible.
In cancer, functional permanent internal disorders occur. For example, in oncology of the respiratory system, the patient coughs, spits up blood, breathes with difficulty, feels soreness in the chest. In the gastrointestinal tract as an area of localization, pain, upset stool worries.
To assume cancer, you need to consider that the disease can manifest itself a variety of symptoms.A preliminary diagnosis is made by examining the history of the disease, assessing all the complaints of the patient. American doctors identified seven signs of the disease:
- Long-lasting ulcer.
- Disruption of the intestinal tract, bladder.
- Discharge, hemorrhage without obvious reason.
- Dysphagia, long-term breakdown of the digestive system.
- The obvious transformation of the wart, moles.
- Long cough, hoarse voice.
- Thickening, nodule in some organ.
How to check?
Diagnosis of malignant tumors begins with radiation studies. The patient is directed to x-rays, CT, MRI, ultrasound, radioisotope analysis. Beam examination helps to determine the fact of the disease and the exact area of localization, to carry out differential diagnostics, the results of which clearly indicate whether the case is of a malignant nature or not. After radiation diagnostics, it is possible to assess the prevalence of the process, the presence of metastases, and determine the optimal places for obtaining samples for histological analysis. Conducted interventional diagnosis to clarify the diagnosis, the formation of a preliminary treatment plan.In the future, it is practiced to assess the success of the selected program.
One of the earliest diagnostic methods is endoscopic examination, which is relevant if the tumor is localized on the mucous membranes of the internal organs. With the help of an endoscope, it is possible to evaluate precancerous changes, understand how great the dangers are for a particular person, and reveal hidden cancer processes in time, small forms of the disease. With the help of an endoscope, a case study is conducted to determine the malignancy, the condition of the diseased organ is assessed, the localization, the result of the remedial measures taken are determined.
For histological analysis by biopsy, samples of cells from the diseased area are taken. According to the results of the study, the diagnosis, stage, prognoses are evaluated, and the effectiveness of the chosen treatment methods is monitored. Morphological examinations suggest determination of tumor markers in the circulatory system. Currently, medicine knows about two dozen compounds present in urine, blood and other body fluids. When they are detected requires increased attention to the patient.
The diagnosis is made: what next?
Treatment of malignant tumors at different stages is practiced different. The best prognoses for those who came to the clinic at the zero and first steps of the disease, but at the fourth, the treatment will probably be palliative, that is, aimed at the general control of symptoms. If you do not practice therapy at all, the disease will progress rapidly, and will soon be fatal. The result of the treatment of malignant neoplasms depends on the disease step at which the therapy started, the success of the chosen course, the individual nuances of the case.
As a rule, an operation is indicated for a tumor, during which the abnormal tissues are completely removed as far as possible. In addition, they may prescribe a course of radiation and medication. If the case is inoperable, supportive therapy is practiced with the use of drugs, radio irradiation. In recent years, medicine has been developing especially actively, several new methods of operating have appeared: gamma, cyber propagation, ablation. With low invasion and minimal damage to surrounding tissues, they help to get rid of atypical cell structures and restore the patient's health.
How to warn?
To minimize the likelihood of malignant tumors, the diet should be reviewed, the influence of carcinogens in professional activity and everyday life should be excluded. It is necessary to completely abandon active, passive smoking, the use of alcoholic beverages. It is important to maintain strong immunity, to exercise, to eat vegetables and fruits, so that the body's defenses are at their best. But from the fat, smoked and other junk food is better to give up completely.
Women over 25 are officially recommended to regularly check the reproductive system for malignant transformations. For persons over the age of fifty, this recommendation applies to both sexes, all types of cancer.