Moldova (grapes): description of the variety, characteristics, planting and care
The benefits of grapes known to all. But let's not be cunning, choosing ripe juicy clusters in the market or in the store, we first of all evaluate their taste, not thinking about what vitamins and in what quantities are contained in these berries.
Today, breeders have brought hundreds of different varieties for every taste: sweet, sour, tart. Every year they are becoming more and more. But there are varieties that for decades have been popular among experienced growers due to their agronomic characteristics and are in high demand from buyers. One of them is Moldova grapes, reviews of which gardeners and ordinary customers are enthusiastic.
The variety was bred in Moldova as a result of the crossing of varieties Guzal Kara and Save Villar. It belongs to the late maturing varieties that are suitable for cultivation in the southern regions.In addition to Moldova, it is grown in the south of Ukraine. In Russia, this climate is suitable for the climatic conditions of the Crimea, the Krasnodar Territory, and the southern regions of the Rostov Region. Gardeners in more northern regions note that grapes often do not ripen in cooler conditions and the berries remain sour.
Moldova (grapes): description
Grapes belong to the hybrids of the Euro-Asian group, table varieties, sometimes it is called late Codreanca. Bushes plants strong and powerful, flowers bisexual. For this reason, no other varieties are required for pollination. Moldova is a grape with a long growing season, from 155 to 160 days. The fruits ripen completely in mid-September.
The bunch of grapes is large, of average density, weighing from 400 to 600 grams. But sometimes with good care it is possible to grow copies weighing about a kilogram. A bunch of Moldova grapes has a cylindrical or conical shape. The leaves are rather large, five-lobed, weakly dissected, rounded.
Moldova is a grape with quite large berries. Their weight reaches six grams. The fruits are painted in a beautiful dark purple color and have a regular oval shape. Berries cover a weak wax coating, the skin is dense and durable.Thanks to it, Moldova is perfectly transported. Grapes are stored for a long time, without losing their taste. There are few seeds in a berry - no more than three. Sugar content - 18%, acidity - 7-10 grams per liter. The fruits have a refined taste with a slight sourness and a pleasant aroma.
Already in eight or ten years after planting you will be pleased with a good harvest Moldova. The grapes of this variety gives up to 150 kilograms of excellent quality berries. Such indicators of yield are achieved due to the strength of growth of the bush in this variety. He quickly begins to bear fruit: the first crops can already be harvested in the second or third year after planting.
But in full force, the grape variety begins to bear fruit by the tenth year. The number of fruitful shoots of the bush is 70%, while the number of clusters formed on the shoot, an average of 1.7. The most intensive fruiting is concentrated on five to six nodes located above the base of the vine.
Frost resistance in areas where Moldova can mature is quite high: down to -22 ° C. Even at such low temperatures, it can winter without shelter.
The advantages of the variety
Moldova has a high yield and storage time. Grapes at home does not lose its taste for one hundred and eighty days.
The variety is immune, almost immune to mildew and gray rot.
Due to the resistance to the root system disease - phylloxera, the viability of varieties that are grafted on the rootstocks of this variety increases significantly.
The wasps are practically not damaged due to the late maturation of Moldova.
Grapes are widely used: in canned, frozen and dried.
Vine quickly recovers from mechanical damage.
Moldova’s disadvantages include powdery mildew, fomopsis, and lime chlorosis. For the prevention of these diseases, it is necessary to spray at least three times a season with special compositions that will protect the plant from these diseases. To do this, the "Bordeaux liquid". The first treatment is carried out at the very beginning of spring, the second after flowering.
Despite the fact that the clusters can persist for a long time on a bush, too late harvesting has a negative effect on its storage.If you do not control the amount of harvest from one bush, then this may affect the quality of the berries.
Moldova is a grape, which by its agrotechnical characteristics is excellent for growing on an industrial scale. A rather unpretentious and strong bush gives a good harvest, so it is successfully used in winemaking, for example, for making famous Moldovan wines. In addition, due to the long shelf life of these grapes grown for fresh consumption.
This variety is perfect for making compotes, jams and juices.
Planting and care
Moldova grows well and develops in southern, sunny areas. Avoid planting in places that are blown by the winds. Landing is better to carry out in the spring. In this case, the plant is easier to adapt to the new place. The soil for planting should be light, rich in fertilizers and minerals.
Very negatively the grape reacts to frequent drops in the moisture level, therefore it is necessary to create a drainage system at the site. If the groundwater is above one and a half meters, then it is not recommended to plant Moldova on such a site.During planting, the temperature of the soil should not be below +10 C °, and the air should not be below +10 C °.
It is necessary to plant bushes according to the 5x4 meter scheme. The stalk before planting should be kept for some time in the water until white roots appear. Before planting, lower the cuttings into the Humate solution for a few seconds. It is prepared from the calculation: ten drops of the drug per liter of water.
It is imperative that you apply the complex fertilizers to the wells in which the Moldova grapes will be planted. This will help the bush to fully develop in the first three years. Place the seedling in the hole, and carefully fill it with soil, leaving the root neck on the soil surface.
To plant Moldova grapes, cut a wedge-shaped cut on the handle and graft it onto the stock or stem, securely fastening it with a strip of fabric.
This sort of moisture is needed, perhaps, more than other species. Therefore, in this case, standard irrigation will not work (before and after flowering). To achieve a good harvest, it is necessary to constantly monitor the soil moisture. With a lack of moisture needed additional watering. Their frequency varies from once a month to three in the dry season.
It is necessary to divert excess water into excavated drainage ditches.After planting (or vaccinations), the plant is watered abundantly: up to three buckets of water under each bush. To keep moisture in the soil, around the bush, the ground is mulched within a radius of one and a half meters. As mulch, it is desirable to use natural materials: chopped bark, chips, straw, sawdust. This measure will protect the plant from weed growth.
Pruning of Moldova grapes
This procedure must be carried out annually. You can do this work in late autumn and in early spring. It is important that the vine is at rest. Moldova grapes bear fruit better when the bush has three or four sleeves, which are extended vertically on a support. Cut the vine should be seven to nine eyes. On average, the bush leaves about seventy eyes.
When forming a bush with a high stem, only four to six eyes are cut. For this variety, it is important that the bush is not overloaded with fruits. Therefore, in spring, it is necessary to control not only the number of shoots, but also the clusters that form on them. After the autumn pruning, the bush is laid on the ground and covered with foil or hay. In the southern regions this can not be done.
It is surprising that quite an old Moldova grape variety is well known and appreciated not only by experienced gardeners, but also by beginners, who are just learning the basics of viticulture. This variety is good because it does not require very complex care, gardeners say that they are satisfied with its fresh taste and the ability to use it in cooking. Many hostesses are proud of the amazing jam made from the berries of Moldova.
The disadvantages of cultivators include poor tolerability of overloading the bush with a crop and the impossibility of growing even in Central Russia.