Nivyanik ordinary: landing and care
Common nivyanik can be called a real intellectual of the garden. Its simplicity is elegant and charming. Landscape designers widely use this ornamental plant in rabatka, mixborders, group plantings.
What a flower
The plant belongs to the genus Nivyanik family of Aster or Asteraceae (Asteraceae). The scientific name of the plant is common cornflower. The Latin name Leucanthemum vulgare is derived from the Greek words: leukos - white and anthemon - flower.
- meadow gardener or ordinary,
- white or meadow chamomile,
- white color,
Chamomile or not?
Often the common cornflower is called chamomile, although from a botanical point of view this is not true. Despite the resemblance, they are only distant relatives. You can distinguish them on several grounds:
- The flower white-yellow basket at nivyanik is larger than that of chamomile.
- The leaves at Nivyanik are predominantly whole, and in chamomile they are pinnately separate.
- The nivyanik has one flower basket and only one stem, and the chamomile has several inflorescences and a branchy stem.
- Nivyaniki mainly belong to perennial plants, and chamomile is an annual.
But amateur gardeners still call the flower chamomile-nivyanik.
Nivyanik-meadow meadow (ordinary) - rhizomatous herbaceous perennial. The stem is erect and slightly granular, from 15 to 60 cm in height. In some varieties only basal leaves - on the petioles and with burped margins, while others have stem leaves - without petioles, oblong, with a serrated edge.
Inflorescences - single baskets from 2.5 to 10 cm in diameter. Marginal reed flowers are long and usually white (less often yellow); they do not form seeds. The central flowers are yellow, small and tubular, give fruit-seeds. Inflorescences may have a different shape depending on the variety: simple, semi-double, terry.
Common nivyanik can be propagated in different ways: by seeds, cuttings. New plants can also be obtained by dividing rhizomes.
The cultivation of common broth (or chedar) from seeds is carried out by seedling.Seeds are sown usually in the spring in greenhouses for growing seedlings or in the fall - immediately in open ground. The first shoots at spring sowing appear after 18-20 days, and plants begin to bloom in the second year, although sometimes the appearance of flowers is possible in the first year of planting. It is best to start sowing cornfield in early March. With earlier periods due to lack of natural light, the quality of seedlings may not be very high.
The main lack of reproduction by seeds is the unguaranteed preservation of the varietal properties of the plant, especially for terry species. The only exception is Krazy Daisy.
Selection of soil and places for planting seedlings
Nivyanik, planting and care of which are described in the article, loves fertile soils, well-drained, fairly moist and non-acidic. On insufficiently moistened and poor soils, the flowers become small, so mulching is often used to retain moisture in the soil (this may be grass, chips, or chips). Well-rotted organic fertilizers are added to poor soils: for heavy soils - 20 kg per 1 square meter, and for light ones - 15 kg per 1 square meter.
It is important to know that the common cornflower, described above, does not tolerate heavy clay and light sandy soils, and on extremely wet areas these plants are prone to fungal diseases.
A good place for landing will be well-lit sunny areas. The lack of light has a negative effect on plant development and flowering.
You will need: paddle, compost, mulch and seedlings.
First, dig the planting pits - they must be of such depth that the roots completely fit into them. Carefully remove the seedlings from the seedling containers along with the soil. Mix the ground with the compost and put a small amount of the mixture in the bottom of the pit, then plant the seedling there.
Top with a hole in the ground, and sprinkle the seedling with a mixture of soil and compost so that you get a small hill. Water well the ground. Mulch the earthen mound around the plant with compost so that the earth retains moisture longer.
Before flowering, planting, planting and caring for which requires some skills, be sure to feed with bone meal or compost.
We must not forget to regularly water the plants.
If you pinch the tops of young shoots, then more buds will start.
Reproduction by cutting
Successful reproduction by cuttings depends on the correct choice of cuttings. Usually use small basal rosettes. They are carefully cut, trying not to damage the leaves, along with a small piece of rhizome - the so-called heel. Better root cuttings cut in the second half of summer.
Nivyanik grown from rooted cuttings, grow in one place for more than 5 years.
Reproduction division of rhizomes
This method is the most popular among landscape designers and gardeners.
Nivyanik rhizomes are divided and planted in spring or early autumn. To do this, the plant is first dug, and then with a sharp knife is divided into small segments with rosettes of leaves. Delenki planted shallowly with an interval of at least 30 cm. Rhizomes necessarily sprinkled with earth.
Planted delenki grow very quickly: from a small segment of rhizome for a couple of years can grow a whole glade of flowers. Unfortunately, this does not apply to all varieties.
Nivyaku need fertile soil, good light, regular watering, fertilizing, as well as the periodic division of the bushes.
On well-moistened soils, the flowers become larger, and their color is brighter. Especially need watering plants during flowering. To retain moisture, mulching is recommended.
Top dressing should be made 2 times per season. Nivyanik responds well to organic matter, especially manure. In spring, plants can be watered with a solution of organic fertilizers, and after flowering with liquid mineral fertilizers. It is also recommended to put humus under the roots of the plant every year - it will stimulate rapid growth.
For winter, the flowers are cut and covered with dry leaves with a layer of 20–30 cm. Large-flowered and terry species are particularly in need of a winter shelter. In early spring, the shelter must be removed so that the bushes are not thrown out.
Neivyan bushes need to be divided every 2-3 years - this prolongs the life of the plants and makes them more enduring and decorative. In the autumn division many plants may die, so it is preferable to carry out the division in the spring.
The genus Nivyanik includes about 20 species. The most famous of them are:
- Common cornfields, or meadow chamomile (L. vulgare Lam).
- Greater Nivyanik (L. Maximum).
- Marsh Leapant (Leucanthemum paludosum).
- Nivyanik Kurilsky (Leucanthemum kurilense).
Common nivyanik, or nursery, blooms from late spring to early autumn.
Varietal nivyanik differ in larger flowers, and they do not grow much. There is no particular diversity in the varieties of common broth. As a rule, they differ only in height. The most common variety is May Queen, its height is about 50 cm.
Many varieties have been obtained from the largest plant. The main difference of this species and its hybrids is a later flowering as compared with common broth.
When choosing varieties or hybrid forms of gardener, be sure to consider not only the attractive appearance, but also the botanical features of the plant, the requirements for care, and resistance to frost.
The choice of varieties and hybrids is extremely diverse: high and low, terry and semi-double, with rounded and torn edges, all sorts of colors, etc.
One of the most unusual varieties - Lacrosse. The plant is about 40 cm tall with white, slightly twisted petals with cut tips.
In terry varieties - Snow Maidens, Aglaia and others - the original flowers, resembling buttons, with very short petals.
The original Old Court variety is distinguished by its colors with a number of narrow curly petals surrounding the yellow center.
Nivyanik varieties with the usual form of petals are also very diverse. For example, a low grade Snow Kep is perfect for borders.
Not long ago, a variety of banana cream appeared - with yellow reed flowers. They are distinguished not only by their spectacular appearance, but also by the compactness of the bushes and abundant flowering.
Very popular Terry grade Crazy Daisy. Its height can reach 90 cm. In the garden, it is well shaded by ornamental shrubs and looks great in flower arrangements.
Nivyanik are not only a decoration of the garden, they also provide an excellent cut. Plants can stand for a long time in the water, especially terry varieties. And most importantly - they look great in any bouquets and flower arrangements.