Origin and history of skiing
Skiing originated in Scandinavian countries in the Middle Ages. Even in the records of 1700, it is told about the ski races after the betting. It was probably the first competition.
Officially, the history of skiing began inmilitary department of Norway. Sports skiing was encouraged in the recruitment of ski teams. Hans Emahuizen in 1733, the first instruction was issued for the troops on ski training, with a sporting bias. There were also the first rules of ski competitions, which were held in 1767 according to different types, which correspond to today's slalom, biathlon, races and downhill. The best athletes were awarded. In order to promote skiing among the civilians of the country, in Oslo in 1814 a sports and military review was held.
A rich history of skiing, starting inNorway, received rapid development in all the great world states. After the organization of the first Norwegian ski sport society in 1877, similar sports clubs appeared throughout the world for 20 years. The first experience was taken by Finland, in 1883 - by Hungary, in 1891 by Austria and Switzerland, in 1803 by Germany and Italy, in 1895 by Sweden and Russia, in 1900 by the USA and Bulgaria, in 1902 England - in 1912 - Japan.
A huge contribution to skiingArctic researchers: Adolf Nordenskiöld in 1883-1884, Fridtjof Nansen during the transition to skiing across Greenland in 1889, Rual Amundsen in 1910-1911, in the expedition to the South Pole, participants of which passed more than 2800 km on skis. In the late XIX - early XX centuries. competitions began to be held regularly in all major countries of the world. However, the direction of development of species in different countries was different. In Norway, jumps, cross-country and double-event races developed. In Finland, development has been skiing across the plain. Mountain species are popular in Alpine countries. In the US, the specialization in the development of sports was influenced by Scandinavian settlers. The skiing direction, under the influence of coaches from Austria, got skiing in Japan.
A new push for the history of skiing receivedafter an international ski congress with the participation of 10 countries in 1910, in the city of Oslo. Established here, the International Ski Commission, reorganized in 1924 in the International Ski Federation (FIS), began to actively carry out world ski competitions, including all kinds. In 1924, the first Winter Olympic Games took place, in 1926 - the World Championship, and in 1928 - the Universiade.
Development of skiing in Russia
The Russian history of skiing began inend of the XIX century. Domestic athletes for a long time were inferior to foreign ones, because the development was slow, the ski exercises were more entertaining. The first competitions took place on February 13, 1894 in St. Petersburg. The Moscow Ski Club (MKL) appeared in 1894 and had 36 members in its first year. Adherents of skis promoted their hobby in Moscow and other cities, attracting new active participants to their ranks. Club "Polar Star" in St. Petersburg was their next achievement.
In connection with the high cost of sports equipmententrance to the masses in the ski clubs was unavailable. Despite the creation of new ski clubs in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Smolensk, Tula and other cities, at the beginning of the XX century. Skiing could not get widespread in Russia. Only after the creation of the Moscow League of Skiers (MLL) in 1910, which combined 10 clubs at once, and soon the establishment of the All-Russian Union of Skiers, the number of competitions increased, and it became possible to coordinate the country's ski movement.
To date, the situation with skiingRussia is radically different. It can be safely attributed to mass sports, especially in the ski area. Our athletes take an active part in all world competitions and compete for gold medals on a par with leaders.
Characteristics of the types of skiing
In skiing include skiing, skiingrace for different lengths of distance, double-event (race and jumping), jumping from a springboard. Conventionally, the types of contests in skiing can be divided into northern species, alpine species, freestyle and snowboarding.
Northern species consist of cross-country skiing, jumpingskiing from the springboard, orienteering, Nordic combined or Nordic combination. Alpine species are all that makes mountain skiing: slalom, giant slalom, downhill, supergiant slalom, skiing combination. Freestyle is called descent from a slope using elements of acrobatic jumps and ballet on skis. A snowboard is a descent on one special board.
There are also such types of skiing asbiathlon, skitour, ski tourism, sports orienteering on skis, ski-mountaineering. Skiing is unusually diverse and rich in various species. Anyone can choose for himself a suitable direction, satisfying his needs and skills. In addition, it is a sport that strengthens health and brings a lot of pleasure.