Soviet medium tank T-34-100: creation history, device, photo
Despite the planned creation of T-44 tanks, Soviet developers decided to make a significant upgrade of the T-34 model. The 100-mm self-propelled artillery, used by the Soviet Army in the years of the Great Patriotic War, has established itself as a very effective fighter of German tanks. Its only drawback was the design solution, according to which a powerful weapon was placed in a fixed wheelhouse. Soviet designers solved this problem by moving the gun from the SU to the tank, which was remembered as the T-34-100.
Start of creation
The task of mounting an instrument of 100 mm caliber on the tower of thirty-four was set by the worker of the Design Bureau of Plant No. 183. The work, which began in July 1944, was carried out in two sections: Nos. 92 and 520. In Division No. 92, under the direction of A. Savin, a 100-mm ZIS (Stalin Plant) cannon was mounted on a medium tank. 85 mm.
At the plant, at the same time as the thirty-fours design work, the T-44B was also designed. Morozov became the head of department No. 520. They were asked to use the already designed T-44B tower for mounting the gun in the T-34-100.
What difficulties did you encounter during design?
Workers of the 92nd department during the operation of the new guns were marked by strong returns. In order to reduce it, the designers tried to install a slit muzzle brake in the designed tank. But it did not bring the desired result. Chassis and transmission needed to be replaced. But with radically reworked knots, the tank would be considered already a completely new machine.
Engineers in the 520th department before the installation of the gun on the tank turret noted that in the T-34 the turret was 160 cm, and the T-44B had 170 cm. Consequently, the Soviet T-34-100 tank should be equipped with a completely new tower construction. To do this, the body in the serial T-34 should be processed. As a result of the changes made, the exchange gun was withdrawn from the tank, and the crew was reduced by one person. The designers also had to reduce the thickness of the bottom and the cover above the engine, and the fuel tanks had to be transferred to the management compartment. The changes also affected the seat for the driver-mechanic: it was a little lowered.After all the improvements, this model began to appear as a T-34-100 tank.
In March 1945, samples of the T-34-100 were sent to the Sverdlovsk and Gorokhovetsky test sites. Subjects machines showed low accuracy of fire. In addition, it was noted that the load on the transmission to reduce the designers and developers did not succeed to the end. The military leadership considered these shortcomings insignificant and required all weaknesses from the designers to be finalized. However, in the course of further refinements, it was not possible to correct the low accuracy of shooting and a strong return to the transmission. This Soviet medium tank required a completely new weapon.
The use of tank LB-1
By the end of 1944, the 100-mm LB-1 cannon was developed by the workers of design bureau No. 92 and the Special Design Bureau. To this end, the designers performed the imposition of a pipe with a diameter of 100 mm on a tank gun 85 mm. LB-1 contained a monoblock pipe, a screw breech and a muzzle brake.
Named after Lavrenty Beria, this weapon was supposed to be used as an alternative in the T-34-100. The armament of the model with this gun was supposed to give a significantly reduced recoil when firing. Equipped with an LB-1 tank, it acquired an increased length — over 9 meters.At 3 meters 34 cm gun exceeded the dimensions of the tank, which negatively affected its permeability.
The result of testing new weapons
LB-1 was tested at test sites in Sverdlovsk and Gorokhovetske together with ZIS-100 and D-10. Shooting from the LB-1 gun showed a good result. Unlike the other two guns, the new tank gun had a high accuracy, and in the process of shooting the hull pitching was insignificant. In the process of testing the tank passed 500 km and executed 1 thousand shots.
After successfully carried out tests LB-1 was approved by the military command and recommended for adoption. After the creation of the first prototype of the T-54 tank and its release for testing, the people's commissariat’s interest in the rearmament of the thirty-fours had faded a little. All attention was directed to the model T-54. As a result, the serial production of the T-34-100 was not crowned with success.
As the main gun in the Soviet medium tank T-34-100, the designers used a 100-mm rifled tank gun. She presented two options: the D-10T and LB-1, whose ballistic characteristics were not inferior to the SU-100. Design execution distinguished from each other these tank guns.LB-1 was equipped with a vertical wedge gate and a muzzle brake. Ammunition of the tank amounted to one hundred shots. The machine is designed for 5 rounds per minute.
In addition to guns, the model of the thirty-four was equipped with a twin machine gun DT, using a caliber of 7.62 mm. Ammunition machine gun designed for 1500 rounds.
As a result of the use of guns with increased power, the chassis of the T-34-100 was subject to minor changes. The suspension for the first three road wheels were identical. As the driving wheels were used pyatirolikovye. The weight of the tank increased to 33 tons. The design features of power transmissions excluded the shooting of a tank gun on the go.
The Great Patriotic War was coming to an end. By this time, the creation of the T-44 tank, which by its characteristics was far superior to thirty-four, was already almost completed. As a result, the T-34-100 remained a prototype. Its mass production was not established.