State Tretyakov Gallery: the history of creation, exhibits, photos, address, best tips before visiting
The State Tretyakov Gallery is one of the most famous art museums in the Russian capital, and the whole country. It was founded in 1856 by the merchant and patron of the arts Pavel Tretyakov. It is here that contains one of the world's largest collections of Russian art.
History of the gallery
The State Tretyakov Gallery actually began to form in the mid-1850s. 1856 is considered to be the official year of its opening. It was at that time that Tretyakov acquired two paintings by Russian artists - “The Clash with Finnish Smugglers” by Khudyakov and Schilder’s “Temptation”. They became the basis for the formation of the collection.
Although his interest in art began to appear even earlier. So, two years before, the Tretyakov had already taken possession of 9 paintings by ancient Dutch masters and 11 graphic sheets.
The first prototype of the State Tretyakov Gallery was the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov. She first opened her doors in 1867, with more than a thousand paintings, as well as sculptures and drawings by Russian artists. 84 works were submitted by foreign masters.
Moscow as a gift
An important event for the State Tretyakov Gallery was held in 1892, when it was actually donated to Moscow. The collection of works of art by that time was considerably replenished. A year later, the gallery officially opened.
At the same time, Pavel Tretyakov, until his death, remained its official administrator. In 1898 a board of trustees was created to manage the gallery, which led Ostroukhov. They began to keep it for a percentage of the capital of 125,000 rubles, which the founder herself bequeathed to the Tretyakov Gallery. Additionally, a certain amount annually allocated city council.
The building in which the State Tretyakov Gallery was located in Moscow was acquired by the merchant's family in 1851. With the increase in the collection, new premises were constantly attached to the mansion, in which works of art were displayed and stored. The first such building was erected in 1873, and from 1902 to 1904 the facade, famous to the whole capital, developed by the architect Bashkirov from Vasnetsov’s drawings appeared. Directly supervised the construction of the architect Kalmykov.
Tragedy with a painting by Repin
Many works of the State Tretyakov Gallery were of great value for Russian and world culture. Therefore, the whole world was struck by an incident that occurred in 1913. Vandal attacked the picture of Ilya Repin "Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan." She was seriously hurt by a knife. The artist because of this had to actually re-create the faces on the image. Khruslov, who at that time was the keeper of the Tretyakov Gallery, having learned about this incident, rushed under the train. Soon after, the city duma elected Igor Grabar a new trustee of the gallery.
Tretyakov Gallery in Soviet Russia
Shortly after the victory of the October Revolution, the gallery was declared the property of the Soviet Republic, it was then that it was named the 1st State Tretyakov Gallery. Grabar was appointed its director. With his direct participation, a museum fund was created, which until 1927 remained one of the key sources of a complete replenishment of the collection.
In 1926, the director of the gallery was replaced. The academician of architecture Shchusev becomes them. The following year, a certain part of the collection moves to the house along the Malaya Tolmachesky Lane, located next door. There was a large-scale restructuring, after which the administration was located here, as well as a library, research departments, funds, and manuscript departments.
Already by 1985-1994, the administrative building was built by the project of the architect Bernstein, after which he became equal in height to the exhibition halls. In 1929, the gallery had electricity.
During the Great Patriotic War
When the Great Patriotic War began, an urgent dismantling of the exposition began in the gallery, as in most other museums in Moscow. She was being prepared for evacuation.The cloths were laid on special wooden shafts, covered with tissue paper, stored in waterproof boxes. Already in the middle of the summer of 1941, 17 carriages left Moscow for Novosibirsk. Works of art were evacuated until the autumn of 1942. When the turn in the war became obvious, the collection began to return. In May 1945, the exposition reopened in front of Muscovites and guests of the capital.
Extending the exposure area
In the postwar period, Korolev, who headed the Tretyakov Gallery in 1980, played an important role in expanding the exposition area. Already in 1983, he began active construction, and two years later the depositary was put into operation. This is a specialized repository for works of art, as well as restoration workshops were located at its base.
Since 1986, a full-scale reconstruction of the main building. And in 1989, a new building was even constructed, in which a computer center, a conference room, a children's studio, as well as additional exhibition halls were opened. The building began to be called the Engineering Corps, because it concentrated the main engineering services and systems.
But the corps located in Lavrushinsky Lane, from 1986 to 1995, were completely closed due to a major reconstruction. For a decade at that time, the only exhibition site left was a building located on Krymsky Val. In 1985, he was officially united with the Tretyakov Gallery.
Collection of the Tretyakov Gallery
The collection of exhibits of this museum is considered the most extensive in our country and one of the most significant in the world in general. The State Tretyakov Gallery, whose collection already comprised about four thousand works by 1917, was perhaps the richest in Russia. That is why it caused such interest among numerous visitors.
In the future, it only replenished. By 1975, the State Tretyakov Gallery, whose collection already comprised about 55 thousand works, was one of the largest in Europe. Regularly, it was replenished by public procurement. Today, in the collection of the State Tretyakov Gallery you can find a collection of Russian painting, sculpture, graphics, works of foreign authors, as well as works of decorative and applied art of the XI-XXI centuries.
We should also mention the collection of icons. Here are the icons of the XI-XVII centuries, including works by Simon Ushakov, Dionysius, the famous "Trinity" by Andrei Rublev.
Many famous paintings of the second half of the XIX century can be found in the Tretyakov Gallery. Here is the richest collection of the Wanderers. Among them are the works of Kramsky, Perov, Savitsky, Makovsky, Savrasov, Polenov, Shishkin, Vasnetsov.
There are quite a few paintings by Ilya Repin, among the ones who have already been mentioned in this article "Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan", "We did not expect". Many are familiar with the works of Surikov “Menshikov in Berezov”, “Boyaryn Morozov”, “Morning of the Archer Execution”, as well as works by Antokolsky and Vereshchagin.
Soviet art is widely represented. Here Grabar, Kukryniksy, Konenkov, Serov, Mukhina, Brodsky are familiar to everyone and everyone.
The State Tretyakov Gallery, which has a collection of more than 60 thousand works today, remains the most attractive place for many art lovers from around the world.
Tretyakov Gallery in Philately
Stamps with the State Tretyakov Gallery have long become a value for philatelists. For example, a stamp of 1949 is considered to be particularly valuable, in which a monument to Joseph Stalin is depicted in front of the building of the Tretyakov Gallery, which was subsequently demolished.In 1956, a postage stamp was issued to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the State Tretyakov Gallery. And in 2006 a whole postal block appeared in circulation, which was released on the 150th anniversary of the gallery.
How to get there?
The main building of the Tretyakov Gallery, which is worth a visit if you expect to get acquainted with the richest collection gathered here, is located in Moscow at 10 Lavrushinsky Pereulok.
The gallery’s working hours are as follows: on Monday, closed, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Sundays from 10 am to 6 pm, and on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays from 10 am to 9 pm Please note that at the same time, the ticket office closes one hour before the gallery closes.
The Tretyakov Gallery is located almost in the very center of Moscow, therefore, it is easy to get to it. The easiest way to do this, using the metro capital. To do this, you need to get to the "Polyanka" or "Tretyakovskaya" stations, which are located on the Kalininskaya line, or to the "Oktyabrskaya" or "Novokuznetsk" stations of the Kaluga-Riga line. Another option is to get out of the car at the Oktyabrskaya station of the Koltsevaya line.
For adult visitors a ticket to the Tretyakov Gallery will cost exactly 500 rubles. These prices are defined in the gallery in 2018. Russian students and pensioners will have to pay 200 rubles each. Admission for minors under 18 is free.
Please note that the gallery has free visits for Russian students on the first and second Sunday of the month.
Visiting the Tretyakov Gallery, take time to see the sights located nearby. These are the Church of St. Nicholas, the Shmelev Square, the Tretyakov Pier, the Kadashevskaya Sloboda Museum, Yakimansky Square, the Rudno-Petrographic Museum.
Tips before visiting
If you are going to visit the Tretyakov Gallery, then do not try to embrace the immense. Do not set a task to see all the collections in one day. It is better to pre-determine with two or three masters or directions, which will focus on this time. And leave the rest until the next visit.
Help to orient you will help and a free guide that you can install on your phone and use it to see the most interesting, without spending too much time.
In the museum you can offer an official audio guide, the use of which will cost you 350 rubles.These audio guides exist in Russian, Italian, English, French, German, Chinese, and Spanish. Remember, to use it, you will have to leave a deposit in the amount of two thousand rubles. An alternative to money as a deposit can be any document proving your identity. The only exception is not to leave a passport.