The area of Turkey, its population, location and history
A country located in South-West Asia andpartly in Southern Europe, today occupying the territory on which the ancient states were located (Persia, Rome, Byzantium, Armenia and others), is called the Republic of Turkey. Its area is 783 562 square meters. km. The state, familiar to most of Russians as a place of rest on the Black and Mediterranean coast.
Turkey takes a position that is acceptedto call strategically important and favorable. On its territory are the ways connecting Asia with Europe, connected by a sea passage from the Black to the Aegean Sea, which includes a small Marmara Sea, the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus.
The land area of Turkey is 769 thousand square meters. km and occupies the territory of the Armenian uplands and the Anatolian peninsula, as well as a small part of the Balkan Peninsula, enclosed between the two seas - the Black and the Mediterranean. The nature of the country is favorable. The forest area occupies more than 102 thousand square meters. km. Great role is played by the warm seas: Mediterranean, Aegean, Marble and Black, from three sides washing Turkey. The area of the water area is almost 14 thousand square meters. km.
It consists of two parts: European - 3% and Asian - 97% of the total area, which are called Eastern Thrace (Rumelia) and Anatolia (Asia Minor) respectively. Conditions for living are favorable, agricultural lands constitute a large share of the territory of Turkey. Area in sq. M. km is 394 thousand.
To trace the history of the appearance of the Turks is notit is possible. The first mention of their distant ancestors, Oghuz tribes, dates back to the 6th century. Historians have established that they lived in the Altai Mountains, from where they came to Asia Minor, first to Turkestan, and by the end of the 10th century, owned virtually all of its territory, including Persia, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt.
Since the IX century in the territory where it is now locatedTurkey, Islam becomes the dominant religion. And the year 1299 was marked by the creation of the Ottoman state. The strongest and most powerful in the small Asia, which subdued a large territory, from Bukhara to Iran, the territory of the Balkan countries, the Caucasus, the Crimean peninsula and the most powerful empire - Byzantium, which stood for millennia.
Russia and Turkey
For those times the area of the territory of Turkey wastruly great. The Empire that conquered Byzantium is a developed state with a rich history, professed Islam, eventually began to pray in Orthodox churches, subjugated by their beauty. This country was in constant wars, more of them were with Russia - the former heiress of Byzantium, which did not want to put up with constant raids on Russian settlements and the stealing of Orthodox people into slavery.
The most important contradictions between our countrieswas the peninsula of Crimea, the North Caucasus, possession of which would give Turkey the opportunity to be the sole domiciliary mistress in the Black Sea, but this did not happen, despite the support of Britain and France. As a result of these wars, Turkey was exsanguinated and weakened. At the end of XIX century. Turkey enlisted the support of Germany, with which they were allies during the First World War.
Since 29.10.1923 Turkey becomes a republic headed by the first president Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Religion separates from the state, and Turkey becomes the first secular state in the Middle East. The capital was moved from Istanbul to the center of the country, to the city of Ankara.
Located at the intersection of the most importantgeographical and trade routes, Turkey has united in itself much valuable from the experience of these civilizations. Today it is an economically prosperous country, with a good transport interchange, industry and highly developed agriculture. The big income of the country brings tourism. Here people from all over the world aspire to see cultural monuments of different times and peoples who lived here and want to get acquainted with the culture of the country.
Most tourists tend to the Black Seacoast, although recently in demand Mediterranean resorts of Antalya. In Kemer (Turkey), the resort area stretches for 70 kilometers between the sea and the most beautiful Taurus mountains.
The population of Turkey
Ottoman Empire - the precursor of modernTurkey, was famous for many centuries for its religious and cultural intolerance and aggression towards neighboring states. Modern Turkey is considered to be tolerant and tolerant country, in which there are numerous peoples, whose motherland is the Republic of Turkey. They are not scattered all over Turkey, but live compactly.
The Turks themselves, who today act as onepeople, by the beginning of the twentieth century were not so. Most consider themselves, first of all, the Turks, and then representatives of an ethnic group. The exception is Kurds, Syrians, Arabs and natives of the Caucasus (Meskhetian Turks, Circassians, Adygs, Balkars).
The population of the country is 78.7 millionhuman. The territory is inhabited by representatives of different peoples who once inhabited it, and only a few decades ago, leading an implacable struggle for their independence. There has never been an ethnic composition in the country, so you can talk about the number of people living alone in a particular people. From the total population, the proportion of residents of certain nationalities is:
- Turks - 70%;
- Kurds - 11%;
- Crimean Tatars-7%;
- riga - 2%;
- Arabs -3%,
- zagi - 2%;
- Circassians - 1.5%.
The remaining nationalities, which number up to 34, are less than one percent each.