The concept of need: their types and classification
In the world economy there is a notionneeds, which is very important for understanding the market and its conquest. It would seem that everything is quite simple, and you just need to know what a person wants. But in fact, everything is not as simple as it might seem at first glance.
The fact is that the needs can be the mostdiverse, they can even be subconscious, so each of them needs to look for its own approach. It is for this that economists have spent a lot of time throughout the history of modern times studying what is a concept of need, how such a need is expressed and what it can be.
What is the need?
The concept of need at first sight canseem quite simple, because it means, in principle, what a particular person needs at a certain point in time. But in fact, everything is much deeper, especially if you look at this concept from an economic point of view.
In the economy, needs are called internalmotives, on which the whole system of modern production is based. It is due to the needs that communication is provided between the buyer, who needs a certain product, a specific service, and the manufacturer who must provide it.
Strictly speaking, the concept of need isirreplaceable in the system of socio-economic relations in any market. A need is not just something that is required by a person, it is a certain product or service that is necessary to him depending on his living conditions, social relations and so on.
Simply put, this is the attitude of a person to hisconditions of life, which can be characterized by the desire to get any object, any service, to experience a sense of satisfaction and improve some aspect of one's life.
Classification of needs
The concept of a person's need for economics is describedalready for a long time, however, the definition is only a general text, affecting only the tip of the iceberg. If we delve into the study of human needs, then it is worth pointing out their various kinds. It is simply impossible to do this spontaneously - the fact is that there can be many kinds of needs. And depending on the angle from which to look at them, their number may increase, and they may intersect and overlap.
It was for this purpose that the system was introducedclassification of needs. There were a lot of different groups for the whole economic history, but there are some of them that are considered basic and are generally accepted. It is about them that will be discussed later.
The concepts of activity, human needs are denseamong themselves intertwine, because it is due to the activity that the needs are met. Some of them can be satisfied on their own, others are satisfied by other people who produce the product you need or provide the service you need.
However, this view can be called quiteone-sided, since in most cases people, when they are asked about needs, try on everything and talk about what one person needs. But if you look at the classification by subject, then you will quickly realize that everything is not as simple as it might seem.
Yes, there are individual needs, thenthere are those that are experienced by one person, which concern only him. However, there are also, for example, collective needs - what is required by a group of people. For example, a working collective needs good leadership, a favorable working atmosphere and so on. There is also an even more global level - social needs, that is, what society needs as a whole. This can be an increase in living standards, lower prices, the absence of military conflicts and so on.
However, the classification by subject has one moreA large group, which includes enterprises, farms and even entire states. They also experience economic needs, which can be very diverse. The enterprise seeks recognition in the world market, wants to increase profits, reduce employee turnover. The state wants to establish foreign economic relations, increase revenues to the budget.
This is how versatile a concept can beneeds. The satisfaction of all this does not happen instantly - it is always necessary to find those who want to satisfy your needs, regardless of whether you are an individual or a whole state apparatus.
The concept of "need" is extremelyversatile, so the classification he has the most diverse. If we talk about the classification of objects, then immediately it is worth noting that in this case, the needs are divided into pairs. So, the first couple are physiological / social needs. The first ones are those that a person needs to continue his existence, that is, food, water, clothes, a roof over his head and so on. As for social, they are not so important, but they are also incredibly necessary and become much more relevant when physiological needs are met. These include a thirst for communication, socialization, the need to receive new information, stay informed, and so on.
The second pair is material / spiritual. The first part is material goods, various goods and services, while the second part is creativity, personal growth, self-improvement.
It is also worth highlighting a couple of priority andnon-urgent needs. If you buy items or essential services that you need in the first place and without which you can not, it is difficult or extremely uncomfortable to continue to exist, they belong to the first group. If it is not so important goods and services that are purchased from a whim, they belong to the second group.
The Maslow Pyramid
Even if you did not know the definition of the concept"Need" in the economic light, then, most likely, you at least have heard what the Maslow pyramid is. This is a world-famous pyramid of needs, compiled by the famous American psychologist Abraham Maslow. Strictly speaking, this is a graphic representation of the hierarchy of human needs.
The basis of the pyramid is the physiologicalneeds, followed by security and protection, social follow above, then - the need for respect. Well, the top of the pyramid is self-realization.
The principle of the pyramid is this: it is common for a person to feel the need for something from each level in ascending order. This means that first a person satisfies physiological needs, then secures safety and protection, and so on.
Thus, if a person is not satisfiedphysiological needs, he does not want to satisfy social, and when he does not have reliable protection, he will not think about self-actualization. Pyramid Maslow most clearly indicates the basic needs. The concept of them in this classification is recognized throughout the world.
By degree of implementation
Another type of classification - by degreeimplementation. Here, the needs are divided according to the principle of how and when a person will be able to realize them. For example, there are actual needs that can be realized at the current level of the development of society, and there are absolute needs - they arise because of the further development of society, motivating it to progress.
Also worth noting solvent needs, which can be met only at a certain level of income and the availability of funds.
Law of increasing needs
You can not talk about needs and not remember aboutthis law. Its essence lies in the fact that the needs of man and society are constantly changing, increasing, new ones appear that are conditioned by further progress and development. This law is closely related to Maslow's pyramid - a person has higher-order needs when he meets the needs of a lower order.
Development of needs in the twentieth century
The law of increasing needs can be described inan example of the development of society in the twentieth century. In the first half of the century, material and material needs were dominant. Since the fifties, social needs have begun to dominate, such as education, medicine, sports, entertainment and so on. And since the eighties people have reached a new level, since the needs of the previous two orders could be met without problems. Therefore, there was a desire to develop and grow as a person.