The engine of the development of life or invention of the Chinese
In the modern world, a person perceives manythings as a reality, not paying attention to when and by whom they were made. The XXI century is characterized by the presence of comfortable conditions for the development of activities and living, but not everyone knows that it is precisely the XX - XXI centuries that are rich in the availability of various inventions. Of course, for many centuries people have made different discoveries and achievements, which were the engine of life development, but no culture is famous for as many inventions as the culture of China. Many will be interested in what was invented in China? Below we consider in more detail the inventions of the Chinese.
Joseph Needham, as a researcher of Chinese culture, in his writings notes such basic inventions of China as paper, gunpowder, compass and typography.
The very first, and most importantly, the greatest discoveryfor the whole world was the invention of paper in China. The chronicles of this country indicate that the paper was invented by Tsai Lunn in the year 105. The technology of its production is quite simple - the bark of a silk tree, pieces of cloth and hemp were poured with water and boiled until the mixture turned into pulp. This pulp was cooled and ground, then mixed with water. The resulting mass was laid on wooden frames, covered with bamboo and cloth, and allowed to drain water. Thus, thin layers of fiber were formed, which were laid under a press and dried. So there was a paper sheet, which is light and durable, and most importantly, a suitability for writing.
Following such an opening as the manufacturepaper, inventions of Chinese people move more rapidly, developing into the development of printing in the country. For the first time in 650, the first print sample was developed, it was a sutra, printed on cannabis paper. And the first printed book of China can be considered the Diamond Sutra. This discovery belongs to the Chinese scientist Bi Sheng. Over time, the technology of making the first book of scrolls was improved, now they were replaced by a stack of sheets. Later these sheets were bent in the center and bandaged, so the book had a modern look. Somewhat later the spine of the book was invented, and the sheets began to be sewn with a thread.
Considering other inventions of the Chinese,It is necessary to dwell on such an opening asinvention of gunpowder. According to the Chinese legend, gunpowder was discovered in the 10th century, at a time when alchemists were creating a mixture to obtain immortality. However, they invented a mixture that was able to take people's lives. So in China there was a powder made of saltpeter, sulfur and charcoal. Originally it was used in fireworks and signal rockets, a little later - during the military operations in 1132. In battles, a bamboo tube with gunpowder inside was used, which was set on fire and thus injured by enemies. One century later, a rifle was invented, representing a bamboo tube with gunpowder and bullets inside.
On this invention, the Chinese do not stop. Even before our era, they used magnetic iron ore for guessing, and later - for recognizing the sides of the world. Magnetic iron ore became magnetized when a lightning struck into it, thus a magnetized mineral appeared, indicating the north and south side of the world. This discovery can be called random. However, over time, the Chinese molded steel discs in the form of fish, which were then placed in a vat of water, and thus magnetic forces appeared. This device was used to determine the southern direction.
Already in the II century, the Chinese scientist Shen Ko developed a magnetic compass with a needle, having improved the previously invented by the Chinese magnetic device.
The Chinese are an amazing people who gave the world many interesting things.