The largest island of Russia. List of the largest islands of Russia

Sakhalin is the largest island in Russia by area. It is rich in minerals and natural attractions. Located between the Far East and Japan, it became a place where two completely different cultures merged. He even has his Japanese name - Karafuto. What other islands belong to Russia? What are the climatic and geographical features of Sakhalin?

The largest islands of Russia

Russia is washed by the Arctic and Pacific oceans, and part of its inland waters belongs to the Atlantic Ocean basin. Islands are in all the seas of the state. The largest of them are Sakhalin, North and South Island (Novaya Zemlya), New Siberia, Wrangel Island, Kolguev Island, the October Revolution, etc. In total, there are about 30 square kilometers of them. More information is given in the table.

Name

Area, sq. Km

Archipelago

Sakhalin

76 600

no

Northern

48 904

New Earth

Southern

33 275

New Earth

Boiler room

23 200

Novosibirsk Islands

October revolution

13 708

Northern Earth

Bolshevik

11 312

Northern Earth

Komsomol member

9 600

Northern Earth

The largest in size is Sakhalin, located in the Sea of ​​Japan and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. After him are the islands of the New Earth - North and South. They are separated by a strait, the width of which is a maximum of 3 kilometers. The archipelago is very elongated towards the pole, and its northern part is covered with glaciers. Cape Flissing, referring to it, is considered the easternmost point of Europe.

Some of the islands are of significant geopolitical and industrial importance. For example, those located in the Far East. They are the border zone of Russia and are located close to Japan, the USA, Canada and other countries. Many of them contain minerals, such as gold, oil, metal ores, and coal.

Sakhalin

The largest island of Russia is located near the shores of the eastern shores of the country. It is washed by the seas of the Pacific Ocean and is located just north of Hokkaido. It is separated from the mainland by the Sea of ​​Japan and the Tatar Strait. In the narrowest part between these pieces of land, the distance is only 7 kilometers.

the largest island of Russia

Sakhalin Island Area - 76,600 km2. It runs in a narrow strip along the coast of the Far East. From south to north, it stretches nearly a thousand kilometers. But its width is much smaller and varies from 26 km to 160 km.

The island belongs to the Sakhalin region. It is home to 490,000 people, but this figure is decreasing every year. The main and largest city is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, while the oldest settlement is Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky. Anton Chekhov lived in the latter, where he wrote his work “Sakhalin Island”.

History

At various times on the island lived Ainu, Nivkh, Evenki, Orok and other tribes. Until the XIX century, the island was under the control of China, but the rights to it were not officially claimed. Since 1805, expeditions from Russia and Japan went to Sakhalin to study it.

At first it was not clear whether this is an island or a peninsula. An incomprehensible status was maintained until 1849, until IG Nevelskiy passed through the strait separating it from the mainland. The narrow part of the Tatar Strait, through which Nevelsky’s ship passed, was named after the admiral.

In the middle of the XIX century, Japan and Russia decided that the island should belong to them, and according to the international treaty it was defined as their “joint indivisible possession”.But such cooperation did not suit anyone, and in 1875, the countries staged a small exchange of land. Now Sakhalin completely belonged to Russia, and part of the Kuril Islands has moved to Japan

 Sakhalin Island area

Until the 20th century, Sakhalin hard labor existed on the island. So began its large-scale settlement. Together with the hard work of prisoners on coal mines and wood processing, an economy appeared on Sakhalin. Sonya Golden Pen was serving his time here.

In 1905, Russia lost in the war with Japan and the southern part of the island moved it to its Asian neighbor. All local names were renamed Japanese, and Sakhalin residents were obliged to celebrate the birthday of the emperor of the Land of the Rising Sun. The island became completely Russian only after the Second World War.

Climate

The surrounding waters and geographic location are of great importance for the weather conditions of Sakhalin. Some areas of the largest island of Russia are equated to the Far North. Because of the location between the mainland and the ocean, the climate is monsoon here, which means that it drastically changes its character every six months.

Summer on the island is predominantly wet and warm. The Pacific Ocean does not let him get bored and often "sends" typhoons.Winters are not too calm. As a rule, they are accompanied by severe frosts, snowfalls and snowstorms.

the largest island in Russia by area

Seasons on the island are not like on the mainland. They start with a delay of several weeks. So, the coldest month of the year is not January, as usual, but February, the hottest days come in August.

Winds on Sakhalin sometimes lead to real disasters. Typhoon "Chataan" in 2002 came along with heavy rain, causing a series of landslides, flooding and mudflows. In September 2017, Typhoon "Talim" swept at 38 m / s, de-energizing several villages.

Landscapes of Sakhalin

The largest island of Russia has a very wavy relief. In the northern part of Sakhalin, the landscape is low, consisting of hills and plains. In the south, there are medium-altitude mountain ranges, elongated in the same direction as the island. The highest point of the island rises to 1609 meters.

Abundant precipitation and mountainous terrain create conditions for the development of winter sports. Not far from Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk there is a tourist complex "Mountain Air", which was opened in 1960.

The ridges of the island are full of caves. In one of them even found the sites of ancient people.One of the most picturesque places on Sakhalin is the Zhdanko Range, formed by a volcano.

north island new land

Nature

Compared with the mainland of the Far East, the nature of the island is not so diverse, although here there are its charms. About 45 species of mammals inhabit Sakhalin. It is inhabited by wolverines, raccoon dogs, musk deer, sea lions, and bears.

The lakes of the island generally live their lives. They are on Sakhalin more than 16 thousand. One of the largest, Tunaycha, annually “acquires” numerous families of birds. Mandarin ducks, swans, eagles, osprey flock here. And this is not surprising, because smelt, trout, pink salmon, various salmon and other fish inhabit the lake itself.

 south island new land

Dozens of species of plants and animals of Sakhalin are rare and protected. Among the local cedars, larch, fir, alder and aspen, owls and all sorts of falcons are hiding. In total, about 378 bird species can be seen on the island, of which 97 are listed in the Red Book.

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