The section "Capital and Reserves" in the balance sheet of a small company: line code, how to calculate? "Capital and reserves" in the balance sheet is ...
Small enterprises, like any othercommercial firms that have the status of legal entities are required to form the accounting statements based on the accounting data. However, enterprises in the relevant status have a number of preferences regarding the completion of reporting documents. In what way are they expressed? What are the nuances of filling the most important informative blocks of financial statements - lines in the section "Capital and reserves" in a small enterprise?
What is the accounting reporting?
First - a bit of theory about accounting. The facts about it will be useful for us from the point of view of understanding the tasks that are faced by the financial services of any commercial firm.
Above we noted that the financial statementsshould form enterprises in the status of legal entities. This is an important nuance, since IP, which are, in terms of the legislation of the Russian Federation, physical persons, should not conduct accounting, nor should they fill out accounts on the basis of the corresponding registers. The obligations of the IP in terms of financial accounting are reduced to the maintenance of the Book of Income and Expenses.
Under the accounting statements of a legal entityit is customary to understand the aggregate of information that reflects the results of the economic activity of an enterprise within the reporting period. The given information is formed mainly at the expense of the indicators fixed in the registers of accounting.
This type of reporting refers tokey in the enterprise along with tax and management. The information that is reflected in it is used to assess the financial condition of the company, the prospects for its growth, the correctness of significant indicators of economic activity, as well as tax reporting. This information may be of interest to managers, owners of the company, government agencies.
Accounting reporting plays an important role ininteraction of the enterprise with potential creditors, investors. Persons interested in investing in the firm will seek to consider reliable sources that allow an adequate assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise. Among those that meet these criteria to the fullest - accounting reporting. It is compiled and certified by the competent employees of the firm, sometimes - with the help of external independent consultants who can analyze how correctly this or that section of the balance is filled correctly ("Capital and Reserves", for example), what points can be improved in the reporting procedure used .
The advantage of the sources under consideration -regularity. Accounting statements can be compiled once a year and more often - depending on the requirements of the legislation, as well as the wishes of interested persons, for example, owners and creditors. Accounting reporting, as a rule, is made according to the standard forms, which are approved by the regulatory bodies - in the first place, by the RF Ministry of Finance. It reflects a variety of economic indicators: asset, balance sheet, capital and reserves of the firm.
Accounting reports should be correlated withprimary sources, as well as registers, which are used by the financial services of the enterprise. The most important task of this type of reporting is the identification of significant facts reflecting the financial stability of the firm, the availability of certain reserves, the dynamics of income and expenditure.
What are the features of accounting at a small enterprise?
Accounting at enterprises related tosmall business, can significantly differ from the corresponding procedures, which characterize the activities of medium and large firms. First of all, it is worth considering the criteria for classifying an economic entity as a small enterprise. This is the company:
- in which the authorized capital is more than 25% private;
- which employs between 15 and 100 people, and the annual revenue is 120-800 million rubles (if the business entity has a smaller staff and turnover, it will be a microenterprise).
The main feature of accounting at a small enterprise is the ability to conduct it in a simplified format. It differs significantly from the general accounting scheme, which assumes:
- filling in the balance sheet, reporting on financial results, as well as various annexes that supplement them;
- registration in the cases provided by law for an audit report;
- preparation of an explanatory note to the balance sheet and a financial results report.
Among the main sections of the financial statements- "Capital and reserves" in the balance sheet. This is an information block reflecting financial indicators, the most important from the point of view of the economic efficiency assessment of the firm. The general order of accounting requires its mandatory filling. Simplified also involves filling the "Capital and reserves" section in the balance sheet. This is an obligatory component of reporting by commercial firms, despite the fact that a simplified accounting procedure is characterized by a number of significant preferences for small businesses. Namely:
- the possibility not to draw up attachments to the balance sheet and an explanatory note to it (if there is no objective need for it);
- the possibility not to include in the reporting documents figures on the economic results within the groups of articles (that is, there is no legislative requirement to specify indicators for specific items).
With regard to direct accounting, a smallthe enterprise can conduct it both in a simple form, without registers, and by standard. At the same time, a firm that has an appropriate status and enjoys preferences for the simplified management of accounting, must keep in mind that the fixation of business operations must meet the criterion of rationality. A similar rule is recommended by experts to follow in the preparation of accounts.
So, it makes sense, if possible, all the sameto specify the indicators for individual items within the "Capital and Reserves" section in the balance sheet of a small enterprise. Let's consider in more detail how the relevant reporting area can be filled.
Filling of the section "Capital and Reserves" in the balance sheet: what information is reflected in it?
The section "Capital and Reserves" in the balance sheet is an information block, which consists of 7 lines. The task of the accountant is to reflect in them such indicators as:
The size of the company's authorized capital is reflected in line 1310. Let's study the specifics of its filling in more details.
Authorized capital in the balance sheet: line 1310
This line of the balance sheet ("Capital and Reserves")involves reflecting the value of the authorized capital, corresponding to the one specified in the constituent documents of the enterprise. It does not matter the fact of a partial payment by one of the founders of the firm of its share. Even if any of the investors did not in principle make the required amount in the authorized capital - the corresponding figure in the section "Capital and reserves" in the balance sheet is fixed.
For the correct filling of the line in questionyou should use the credit balance on account 80, which is used in the accounting registers. Next, the accountant must reflect the correct information on the company's own shares.
Own shares in the balance sheet: line 1320
Filling in the appropriate line in the "Capital and Reserves" section of the balance sheet is a procedure that can be characterized by certain peculiarities for companies in the status of JSCs and LLCs.
So, joint-stock companies, forming the reporting andreflecting the data on it in line 1320, indicate information on own shares that are purchased directly from their holders. LLC fix information on the value of shares within the authorized capital, which are purchased, in turn, from the founders of the enterprise.
To fill the section line under consideration"Capital and reserves" it is necessary to use the data on the debit balance within the account 81. Further it is necessary to report on the information on the additional and reserve capital. Let us study the nuances of this procedure in more detail.
Additional and reserve capital in the balance sheet: line 1350
The relevant information is the most important characteristic of such a source as the balance sheet ("Capital and Reserves"). What is included in them?
With respect to additional capital, it can be formed in 3 ways:
In order to correctly reflect the numbers on the line1350, it is necessary to use the information within the credit balance of account 83. The reserve capital of the enterprise is also reflected in the section "Capital and Reserves". The line code in the balance for specifying the value of this resource is 1360.
Information on the relevant type of capital inaccounting reports reflect firms with a reserve fund. In general, these are joint-stock companies, because they are obliged to form it in accordance with the requirements of Russian legislation. The reserve fund of AO is formed at the expense of mandatory deductions - at a rate of 5% of net profit or more. As soon as it reaches the value prescribed in the constituent documents of the enterprise, the corresponding deductions can be terminated. At the same time, the size of the reserve fund should be 5% or more of the authorized capital of the firm.
Of course, LLC is also entitled to form a corresponding fund. Its magnitude and procedure for transferring capital for the purpose of creating an appropriate resource are determined in the management policy of the organization.
In order to correctly reflect the figures forreserve capital in the balance sheet, it is necessary to use the information on the credit balance in the account 82. The next information block of the "Capital and reserves" section in the balance sheet is line 1370. It reflects the data on the retained earnings of the firm.
Undistributed profit in the balance sheet: line 1370
Information on line 1370 of the balance sheet should reflectall firms that have a commercial turnover. The corresponding indicator may be represented by profit or uncovered loss. In order to enter the correct data into the line in question, you must use the information from account 84. You may need to transfer the debit or credit balance to the balance sheet in the corresponding account. It should be noted that by that time the balance of the enterprise must be reformed. It involves closing such accounts as 90, 91, and also 99.
Another important block in the section "Capital and Reserves" in the balance sheet of a small company is line 1320. It reflects the value of the company's own shares.
Own shares in the balance sheet: 1320
Information on this line can be recorded asJSC, and LLC (in the event that the enterprise buys out certain shares from the founders who exit the business). AO reflect in the corresponding block the value of securities that are bought from their owners, LLC - shares within the authorized capital purchased from the founders.
In order to correctly reflect the information in line 1320, it is necessary for the accountant to use the data on the debit balance within account 81.
Reporting of a small enterprise: other nuances
So, we looked at how to fill outaccountant of a small enterprise Section III of the balance sheet - "Capital and Reserves". It will be useful to study additionally a number of other information characterizing the formation of accounting statements in a firm that has the corresponding status.
The legislation of the Russian Federation allows small enterprisesindependently develop documents through which the reporting will be formed. For example, if a company does not fill out a balance sheet item ("Capital and Reserves" includes, as we now know, quite a few lines, and not all of them will necessarily be filled by the enterprise - in some cases, it may simply not have the necessary data) , then it has the right to exclude it from those forms that are used for the purposes of reporting.
A small enterprise that uses simplified methodsaccounting, can use registers without double entry. But this option should be used only if the relevant accounting scheme does not interfere with extracting the required information to fill such an information block of financial statements as the Section "Capital and Reserves". Passive balance, as well as its asset in many cases can be correctly filled only if the accounts are considered in the context of a double entry for various business transactions.
Another nuance that characterizes the conduct of the accountingat a small enterprise - the ability to reduce the total number of accounts relating to synthetic. The fact is that the firms that are larger are required to apply the relevant accounts according to the list, which is approved by law. On its basis, an internal corporate account plan is drawn up. In turn, small businesses in the case if accounting in them is conducted within the limited list of economic operations, has the right not to use synthetic accounts mandatory for large firms and not to approve them in the work plan. However, the available must fully reflect the essence of business processes. The accountant should not have any problems with how to calculate capital and reserves in the balance sheet using registers.
It can be noted that many firms in practice do notuse the opportunity in question precisely to avoid situations where information in the accounting books is missing in the financial statements to fill out an information block. But if the company is confident that such precedents can be avoided, it has the right to use a simplified scheme for recording business transactions. For this purpose, for example, a small Book of Accounting, which is small in volume and not complex in structure, can be used.
So, we studied the essence of accounting on a smallenterprise, considered what the balance sheet ("Capital and Reserves") is, what is included in it. Firms having the appropriate status, by virtue of the legislation, have the right to conduct accounting under simplified schemes, as well as to form reports with the use of less complicated registers and documents. But in the part of filling the balance sheet, small businesses actually have a few advantages over larger ones, as significant economic indicators are fixed in the relevant information blocks. It is undesirable to ignore them when forming reports - a key source of information about the financial position of a commercial firm.