The Tribunal is an emergency court.
For most Russians, the tribunal is strongly associated with the word "international", and more often also the "Nuremberg". For the military, of course, this is their "native court." The tribunal is a symbol of the inevitability and fairness of punishment in most cases. Unless, of course, the Hague, which has become a symbol of bias and unhurried proceedings.
Little about the origin
Once the tribunal was the hill with which Roman court officials, consuls and praetors, did justice by publicly handling controversial cases. This marked the beginning of Roman law, which underlies the modern legislation of most countries of the world.
During the years of the French revolution, the tribunal was the organ of reprisals against political opponents, many of whom ended their lives in the guillotine. The bloody French tradition was picked up in 1917 in Russia, creating revolutionary tribunals for the same purposes. Revolutionary tribunals considered cases of espionage, pogroms, bribery, forgery, misuse of documents, hooliganism.Basically, it all boiled down to cases of combating counterrevolution and sabotage, in which people were sentenced to mass executions. The Tribunal at that time served as a weapon of terror. In 1918, a revolutionary tribunal was established, which began to deal with the military who committed crimes. Following the Second World War, the victorious countries established the International Military Tribunal for the trial of war criminals in Germany. Further, this experience was constantly used by the international community for the trial of crimes against humanity. In addition, there are tribunals for the law of the sea and sport, which are the highest authorities in their areas.
There are special military courts in many countries of the world, for example, in the USA, Israel, Russia, Burma. Military tribunals deal with crimes of military personnel. But here they mean crimes that are beyond the powers of the commanders. In the army, the tribunal is the next instance after the commander, which determines the punishment. In accordance with military regulations, commanders are bodies of inquiry.
Most often, the activities of military tribunals become known due to extraordinary circumstances related to the disclosure of secret information. Cases are also conducted in connection with the killings committed by servicemen. For example, a US military tribunal was prosecuting Manning B. He was tried for the transfer of secret documents to the WikiLeaks site. Periodically reported on the sentences of the military tribunal of the Russian army against military personnel who worked for foreign intelligence services. More information is being received from Asian countries about the tribunals for crimes against civilians.
International are created for the trial of persons who have committed crimes of a mass nature against a large group of persons, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and mass killings. The body is created at the time of the trial of crimes united on some basis, for example, of a territory. Organizing an international tribunal requires an agreement between a group of countries or a UN decision. The first was in the case of Nuremberg, the second - in all other cases.