Where does the Taz (river) flow?
Taz - a river in the north of Western Siberia. The river belongs to the basin. It is located in the far north, in the Krasnoselkupsky and Tazovsky districts of the Russian Federation (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District).
General information, etymology of the name
This is one of the longest domestic rivers, stretching for 1.4 thousand kilometers in length, despite the fact that the total catchment mirror is about 0.15 million square kilometers!
The gradient of the fall in height throughout the water body is 139 meters, with a slope of less than 10 centimeters per kilometer of length.
Formed the river of Russia Taz through the confluence of two streams without a name, the source - a swamp in the upper reaches. The confluence is the Kara Sea, Tazovskaya Bay (together with the Pur River).
Etymologically, the name of the river is traditionally referred to as Nenets "tasu", which means "lower" in translation.
Along the bed of the pelvis there are only small settlements:
- the villages of Tibesale, Ratta, Tolka, Kikkiak, Gazsale;
- Pechchalka settlement;
- district center Krasnoselkup (district center of Krasnoselkup district of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District);
By the number of population, the leading position is occupied by the village of Gazsale, where more than two thousand people live and gas fields are being mined. As well as the village Krasnoselkup, with the number of inhabitants more than five thousand. In the latter there is even its own airfield!
Tributaries of the pelvis
The river has many large and small tributaries (there are more than eight thousand). Of these, about ninety percent are less than ten thousand meters long. Larger tributaries are distributed as follows:
- 10 thousand meters and more - 900;
- 50-100 thousand meters - 89;
- more than 100 thousand meters - 52 rivers.
The most prominent among them are: Hudosei, Bolshaya Shirta, Tolka, Chaselka, Vatylka, Russkaya, Khetil-Ki, Varga-Sylky, Pokolka, Ratta, Pyakal-Ky, Parusovaya with a length of channels of 209-409 kilometers.
The area of the Taz River is a habitat and spawning ground for a number of valuable species; this basin is of particular importance for a number of whitefish. In general, more than thirty species of ichthyofauna inhabit here. Of them are commercial: nelma, burbot, muksun, ruff, whitefish, perch, chir, crucian carp (gold, silver), pelyad, ide, pike, dace, tugun, roach and others. Of commercial species of the pelvis, one cannot but note whitefish species such as: chir, sig-pyzhyan, omul, muksun, peled, and whitefish. Occasionally grayling occurs.
River valley, riverbed and other characteristics
The valley, where the river Taz is located, has the shape of a trapezoid 20 kilometers wide. On the left, the valley slope is flat and gentle, and on the right the slope is steeper, has terraces and beams. The floodplain, which is flooded during floods, has two sides, but is unevenly located on both sides of the river bed. On the left side there is a slight slope, the width of this part is approximately 4 kilometers. On the right side there are many small and large lakes, and the width reaches 16 kilometers.A winding channel now and then branches into sleeves, forms meanders. In the upper reaches, the width of the river is 80 meters, in the middle course it increases to 400 meters. And in the bottom rises to 1 kilometer. The depth in the upper reaches is quite small from 0.8 meters to 3 meters, and below it reaches 14.5 meters. The average slope of the river is quite small - 0.09 meters per kilometer. Therefore, the flow rate is small - 0.2-0.5 meters per second.
In the annual hydrological regime of the river there is a spring-summer flood, which is very pronounced. Also there is a long low water in winter. In the feeding of the river, the role of surface waters is especially great.Snow feeding is of great importance. But the groundwater feeds the river only 30 percent due to permafrost, which does not allow a significant amount of moisture to pass through the soil.
The maximum flow is observed during the flood, and makes up 60-70 percent of the total annual flow. The water flow rate during this period reaches 1.25 meters per second. The water level rises sharply and quickly in the spring-summer period, then slowly and smoothly decreases.In the upper reaches, the flood begins at the end of April, and in the lower reaches - at the end of May. The Taz River opens from ice after 20 days from the beginning of the flood. The ice drift proceeds during a temporary interval from 1 to 6 days. In late summer, in August, the period of low water begins, which lasts until October. High water levels are maintained by heavy rains. But in the spring flood the water level is still significantly higher, and the autumn-summer floods do not exceed it. During the winter period of low water, the river is fed by groundwater.
Sometimes the rivers of the basin of the Taza freeze over completely, as their nutrition is weakened. Although near the river Taz full freezing almost never occurs.The river is shallow, because shipping on it is not developed. In the period of lack of ice, where the Taz River flows into the sea, the following phenomenon is observed - strong winds blowing from the Taz Bay, catch the water back into the river. Sometimes it occurs in areas remote from the mouth for 200 kilometers.
The water in the Taz River is very difficult to call clean, because according to chemical analysis it is very dirty. This is very strange, since the human impact on the river is very small, there are no industrial enterprises dumping waste. Poor water quality is determined by the high iron content due to the entry of marsh water into the river. Oil products are also present in the river because of the oil field in the north of Western Siberia. In the water, in addition, the high content of manganese and copper, which come from groundwater.
Economic activities on the river Taz
The main factors that affect the purity of the river: oil production, nearby settlements, agriculture, river rafting and mining of various minerals. The main natural resources of this region are oil and natural gas.Here are located the largest deposits of the country, such as Yamburg and Zapolyarnoye. Also there are woodworking enterprises. The exploitation of oil and gas fields negatively affects the ecological condition of this territory. Lakes and tributaries of the Taz River are polluted. Despite this, the territory of the river basin belongs to the underdeveloped territories in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District.